http://www.mygenes.co.nz/Ch12.pdf Dr Robert Spitzer, a prime mover in the 1973 decision to remove SSA from the Diagnostic Manuals as a mental illness, nearly 30 years later interviewed 200 people who claimed they had changed, and he concluded that real and extensive change had occurred in many cases. This was probably an extreme sample, but showed unequivocally that change, sometimes large, is possible for some motivated individuals. The study published in 2003, attracted a large amount of criticism and abuse from the gay lobby, but any impartial observer would say he has established beyond reasonable doubt that change does take place for some people, and that in view of the published literature, this is no real surprise. Spitzer after his study, received death threats so disturbing that he withdrew from making public comment about the subject because he said he had to protect his family. A contrary study, showing harm to some people50 particularly showing up in poorer self-image and suicidal thoughts, but including accounts of people who said they had been helped by therapy, was followed by a doctoral project by Karten who interviewed other people who claimed they had been helped and had changed. His results were very similar to Spitzers, and support the idea that change is possible. A book by Jones and Yarhouse in 2007 interviewing those who had been through the (nonprofessional) Exodus program (see below) also concluded that much real change had occurred but described the resulting predominant heterosexuality for many of the participants as rather complicated, meaning tinges of same-sex feelings remained. Nevertheless, in their sample the degree of change was actually greater for predominant heterosexuals than bisexuals. A book by Hallman due out 2008, published by IVP, will describe various degrees of change reported among lesbians. Of course even one published case of documented change would be sufficient to disprove the assertion that change is impossible, and there are hundreds. Those changes are of varying extent, but the majority of changes are satisfying to those involved and that is one of the main ideals of psychotherapy.