. These laws lower the cost of using lethal force," says Mark Hoekstra, the economist behind the study. "Our study finds that, as a result, you get more of it. Homicides go up by 7% to 9% in states that pass the laws." What the study didn't find was "evidence of any [crime] deterrence effect over that same time period." As to why this is the case, economist Mark Hoekstra told NPR that Stand Your Ground encourages more lethal force by lowering its costs: One possibility for the increase in homicide is that perhaps [in cases where] there would have been a fistfight now, because of stand your ground laws, its possible that those escalate into something much more violent and lethal. .