Haiti and America's Historic Debt

Discussion in 'Politics' started by Contessa_Sharra, Jan 16, 2010.

  1. Contessa_Sharra
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    Contessa_Sharra Searcher for Accuracy

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    Haiti and America's Historic Debt
    Many of the great cities of France owe their grandeur to the wealth that was extracted from Haiti and its slaves. Recent Republican administrations have been particularly hostile to the popular will of the impoverished Haitian masses - twice ousting Aristide, who was twice elected by overwhelming margins. Washington’s conventional wisdom on Haiti holds that the country is a hopeless basket case that would best be governed by business-oriented technocrats who would take their marching orders from the United States, notes Robert Parry.
    Announcing emergency help for Haiti after a devastating 7.0-magnitude earthquake, President Barack Obama noted America’s historic ties to the impoverished Caribbean nation, but few Americans understand how important Haiti’s contribution to US history was.

    In modern times, when Haiti does intrude on US consciousness, it’s usually because of some natural disaster or a violent political upheaval, and the US response is often paternalistic, if not tinged with a racist disdain for the country’s predominantly black population and its seemingly endless failure to escape cycles of crushing poverty.

    However, more than two centuries ago, Haiti represented one of the most important neighbors of the new American Republic and played a central role in enabling the United States to expand westward. If not for Haiti, the course of US history could have been very different, with the United States possibly never expanding much beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

    In the 1700s, then-called St. Domingue and covering the western third of the island of Hispaniola, Haiti was a French colony that rivaled the American colonies as the most valuable European possession in the Western Hemisphere. Relying on a ruthless exploitation of African slaves, French plantations there produced nearly one-half the world’s coffee and sugar.

    Many of the great cities of France owe their grandeur to the wealth that was extracted from Haiti and its slaves. But the human price was unspeakably high. The French had devised a fiendishly cruel slave system that imported enslaved Africans for work in the fields with accounting procedures for their amortization. They were literally worked to death.

    The American colonists may have rebelled against Great Britain over issues such as representation in Parliament and arbitrary actions by King George III. But black Haitians confronted a brutal system of slavery. An infamous French method of executing a troublesome slave was to insert a gunpowder charge into his rectum and then detonate the explosive.

    So, as the American colonies fought for their freedom in the 1770s and as that inspiration against tyranny spread to France in the 1780s, the repercussions would eventually reach Haiti, where the Jacobins’ cry of “liberty, equality and fraternity” resonated with special force. Slaves demanded that the concepts of freedom be applied universally.

    When the brutal French plantation system continued, violent slave uprisings followed. Hundreds of white plantation owners were slain as the rebels overran the colony. A self-educated slave named Toussaint L’Ouverture emerged as the revolution’s leader, demonstrating skills on the battlefield and in the complexities of politics.

    Despite the atrocities committed by both sides of the conflict, the rebels – known as the “Black Jacobins” – gained the sympathy of the American Federalist Party and particularly Alexander Hamilton, a native of the Caribbean himself. Hamilton, the first US Treasury Secretary, helped L’Ouverture draft a constitution for the new nation.

    Conspiracies

    But events in Paris and Washington soon conspired to undo the promise of Haiti’s new freedom.

    Despite Hamilton’s sympathies, some Founders, including Thomas Jefferson who owned 180 slaves and owed his political strength to agrarian interests, looked nervously at the slave rebellion in St. Domingue. Jefferson feared that slave uprisings might spread northward.

    “If something is not done, and soon done,” Jefferson wrote in 1797, “we shall be the murderers of our own children.”

    Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, the chaos and excesses of the French Revolution led to the ascendance of Napoleon Bonaparte, a brilliant and vain military commander possessed of legendary ambition. As he expanded his power across Europe, Napoleon also dreamed of rebuilding a French empire in the Americas.

    In 1801, Jefferson became the third President of the United States – and his interests at least temporarily aligned with those of Napoleon. The French dictator was determined to restore French control of St. Domingue and Jefferson was eager to see the slave rebellion crushed.

    Through secret diplomatic channels, Napoleon asked Jefferson if the United States would help a French army traveling by sea to St. Domingue. Jefferson replied that “nothing will be easier than to furnish your army and fleet with everything and reduce Toussaint L’Ouverture to starvation.”

    But Napoleon had a secret second phase of his plan that he didn’t share with Jefferson. Once the French army had subdued L’Ouverture and his rebel force, Napoleon intended to advance to the North American mainland, basing a new French empire in New Orleans and settling the vast territory west of the Mississippi River.

    In May 1801, Jefferson picked up the first inklings of Napoleon’s other agenda. Alarmed at the prospect of a major European power controlling New Orleans and thus the mouth of the strategic Mississippi River, Jefferson backpedaled on his commitment to Napoleon, retreating to a posture of neutrality.

    Still – terrified at the prospect of a successful republic organized by freed African slaves – Jefferson took no action to block Napoleon’s thrust into the New World.

    In 1802, a French expeditionary force achieved initial success against the slave army, driving L’Ouverture’s forces back into the mountains. But, as they retreated, the ex-slaves torched the cities and the plantations, destroying the colony’s once-thriving economic infrastructure.

    L’Ouverture, hoping to bring the war to an end, accepted Napoleon’s promise of a negotiated settlement that would ban future slavery in the country. As part of the agreement, L’Ouverture turned himself in.

    Napoleon, however, broke his word. Jealous of L’Ouverture, who was regarded by some admirers as a general with skills rivaling Napoleon’s, the French dictator had L’Ouverture shipped in chains back to Europe where he was mistreated and died in prison.

    Foiled Plans

    Infuriated by the betrayal, L’Ouverture’s young generals resumed the war with a vengeance. In the months that followed, the French army – already decimated by disease – was overwhelmed by a fierce enemy fighting in familiar terrain and determined not to be put back into slavery.

    Napoleon sent a second French army, but it too was destroyed. Though the famed general had conquered much of Europe, he lost 24,000 men, including some of his best troops, in St. Domingue before abandoning his campaign.

    The death toll among the ex-slaves was much higher, but they had prevailed, albeit over a devastated land.

    By 1803, a frustrated Napoleon – denied his foothold in the New World – agreed to sell New Orleans and the Louisiana territories to Jefferson. Ironically, the Louisiana Purchase, which opened the heart of the present United States to American settlement, had been made possible despite Jefferson’s misguided collaboration with Napoleon.

    “By their long and bitter struggle for independence, St. Domingue’s blacks were instrumental in allowing the United States to more than double the size of its territory,” wrote Stanford University professor John Chester Miller in his book, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery.

    But, Miller observed, “the decisive contribution made by the black freedom fighters … went almost unnoticed by the Jeffersonian administration.”

    The loss of L’Ouverture’s leadership dealt a severe blow to Haiti’s prospects, according to Jefferson scholar Paul Finkelman of Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

    “Had Toussaint lived, it’s very likely that he would have remained in power long enough to put the nation on a firm footing, to establish an order of succession,” Finkelman told me in an interview. “The entire subsequent history of Haiti might have been different.”

    Instead, the island nation continued a downward spiral.

    In 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the radical slave leader who had replaced L’Ouverture, formally declared the nation’s independence and returned it to its original Indian name, Haiti. A year later, apparently fearing a return of the French and a counterrevolution, Dessalines ordered the massacre of the remaining French whites on the island.

    Though the Haitian resistance had blunted Napoleon’s planned penetration of the North American mainland, Jefferson reacted to the shocking bloodshed in Haiti by imposing a stiff economic embargo on the island nation. In 1806, Dessalines himself was brutally assassinated, touching off a cycle of political violence that would haunt Haiti for the next two centuries.

    Jefferson’s Blemish

    For some scholars, Jefferson’s vengeful policy toward Haiti – like his personal ownership of slaves – represented an ugly blemish on his legacy as a historic advocate of freedom. Even in his final years, Jefferson remained obsessed with Haiti and its link to the issue of American slavery.

    In the 1820s, the former President proposed a scheme for taking away the children born to black slaves in the United States and shipping them to Haiti. In that way, Jefferson posited that both slavery and America’s black population could be phased out. Eventually, in Jefferson’s view, Haiti would be all black and the United States white.

    more at the link:
    http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/opinion/?id=36676
     
  2. Contessa_Sharra
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    Contessa_Sharra Searcher for Accuracy

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    Last edited: Jan 16, 2010
  3. GHook93
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    GHook93 Aristotle

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    TJ sucking up the to French couldn't be from the fact that the French were pivotal in the Americans successfully winning independence from GB? It couldn't be from the fact that every administration since Washington feared a war with France? It couldn't be that France, who was extremely militaristic and imperalistic and had a large a tough army, possessed a serious threat to infant state of America and TJ knew a war with France would be catastrophic. America would have lost to face or weaken so much that GB would sweep in and take her with little problem.

    America's embargo (which has a 1000 fold less meaning and effect then it does now) couldn't be in response that Haiti mass-murdered 10s of thousands of whites (primary reason there are no whites in Haiti), simply because they were white? Come on now, the author of glup Middle East news wants to twist history to defame America (who would have thunk from a Arab media source. The Haiti white genocide, was simple to revenge and murder 10s of thousands of whites. Plain and simple!

    Theme of the piece: The White Man once again is successful in keeping the black man down! Stick it to da man!

    The Louisiana Purchase was plain and simple. Napoleon's European War desperately needed money! TJ picked the best time to take advantage of French predicament.
     
  4. Contessa_Sharra
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    Contessa_Sharra Searcher for Accuracy

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    And Thomas Jefferson was a racist asshole.... including the perpetual enslavement as well as the rape of his dead wife's half sister....

    As for founding father principles, it was his lifelong habit to be in debt and hounded by creditors... Seems he couldn't manage to live within his means!

    And really too bad you don't know your Jeffersonian history!

    SparkNotes: Thomas Jefferson: The Louisiana Purchase
     
  5. Xenophon
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    Xenophon Gone and forgotten

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    No 'great city' in France owes anything to Haiti.
     
  6. LibocalypseNow
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    LibocalypseNow Senior Member

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    Yes EEEEEEEEEEEEETZ DA BOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSSH!!!! Oh and EEEEEEEEEEEEETZ DA FOX NOOOOOOOOOOOOOOZ TOO!!!! What a bunch of Whackadoos. Yikes!
     
  7. AllieBaba
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    AllieBaba BANNED

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    I am wracking my brain trying to think of a great city in France that owes anything to Haiti. Paris was great before Haiti.

    What other great city IS there in France? The only others I can think of owe their greatness to the grapes they grow.
     

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