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How one beach city's racial reckoning is putting California's racist history front and center

Mac-7

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usual you show an ignorance to reality.

The Homestead Acts were passed in 1862 before the end of slavery. This alone should provide evidence of the limited benefit this act had for blacks in America.
Well whoop d do

you seem to be ignorant of the 14th Amendment that made black people citizens

after that the Homestead Act applied to them also
 

22lcidw

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"During a period where many citizens were given public land by the government, Blacks who wanted to be small farm owners had to pay for their land and struggle against obstacles that most of their White counterparts did not. This is especially unsettling given that during the initial phase of the Homestead Act, from 1863-1880, most Blacks had just been freed from slavery, faced active discrimination, and were not in a position to negotiate on equal terms. It was a missed opportunity to not use the Homestead Act as a vehicle for Black self-sufficiency, bringing the freed slaves into the existing economy using existing laws to do something at which they already had some experience. Oliver and Shapiro (1995) argue that outcomes of the Homestead Act are just one of many examples of the racialization of state policy, economic detours to self-employment, and sedimentation of racial inequality that shapes the inequality of wealth between Blacks and whites even today."

Williams, T. (2000). The Homestead Act: A major asset-building policy in American history (CSD Working Paper No. 00-9). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Center for Social Development. The Homestead Act: A Major Asset-Building Policy in American History pg. 12
my Grandparents Homestead back in the 1920's or so after they were sponsored to move to America to a city from their home countries were row homes perhaps 15 feet wide and 35 feet long, 2 stories high with a basement. There were no social programs at all. They needed a trade with their education to be approved of to immigrate here. The old countries were starting their fascism act as we are doing now.
 

IM2

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Well whoop d do

you seem to be ignorant of the 14th Amendment that made black people citizens

after that the Homestead Act applied to them also
Like I said, you're ignorant. You seem to think because you can claim a law ws passed that it means something. The 14th Amendment didn't stip Jim Crow you ignorant bastard nor did it prevent the acts of violence visited on blacks who tried to get land. But you want to pretend. Pretending is for children.

"As early as 1865, certain white Southerners put legal obstacles in place to prevent ex-slaves from acquiring property. In the provisional state governments under President Johnson’s protective leniency, planters not only prohibited black landownership but enacted extreme measures of social control that virtually restored slavery. The black codes struck directly at freedmen striving to escape their subordination and to obtain their communities. It was class and race legislation."

There were blacks that tried to get homestead land. I live in Kansas, I have been to Nicodemus, one of the places established by Exodusters. I have met descendants of those Exodusters, but the reality here is that blacks escaping the south were poor and while the government established the Freedmen’s Bureau, like most other entities that did not further the interests of whites, it was under resourced. Because it was under resourced the Bureau could not provide the depth of services or advocacy needed to address the issues the newly freed slaves faced. On top of that, it was only meant to be temporary. While whites were given free land, members of our government decided that providing the newly freed slaves with free land would create dependence on free stuff from the government. Because of that, whites who worked as administrators for the Freedmen’s Bureau decided that blacks needed to raise money for land they were giving away to whites. Now think about that one for a moment. We are talking about people whose free labor those very whites had come to depend upon to make life easier for them woorying about someone else being dependent.

"During a period where many citizens were given public land by the government, Blacks who wanted to be small farm owners had to pay for their land and struggle against obstacles that most of their White counterparts did not. This is especially unsettling given that during the initial phase of the Homestead Act, from 1863-1880, most Blacks had just been freed from slavery, faced active discrimination, and were not in a position to negotiate on equal terms. It was a missed opportunity to not use the Homestead Act as a vehicle for Black self-sufficiency, bringing the freed slaves into the existing economy using existing laws to do something at which they already had some experience. Oliver and Shapiro (1995) argue that outcomes of the Homestead Act are just one of many examples of the racialization of state policy, economic detours to self-employment, and sedimentation of racial inequality that shapes the inequality of wealth between Blacks and whites even today."
 

IM2

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my Grandparents Homestead back in the 1920's or so after they were sponsored to move to America to a city from their home countries were row homes perhaps 15 feet wide and 35 feet long, 2 stories high with a basement. There were no social programs at all. They needed a trade with their education to be approved of to immigrate here. The old countries were starting their fascism act as we are doing now.
Bullshit. O.K.? I know what went on, you need to go study it.
 

AZrailwhale

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Like I said, you're ignorant. You seem to think because you can claim a law ws passed that it means something. The 14th Amendment didn't stip Jim Crow you ignorant bastard nor did it prevent the acts of violence visited on blacks who tried to get land. But you want to pretend. Pretending is for children.

"As early as 1865, certain white Southerners put legal obstacles in place to prevent ex-slaves from acquiring property. In the provisional state governments under President Johnson’s protective leniency, planters not only prohibited black landownership but enacted extreme measures of social control that virtually restored slavery. The black codes struck directly at freedmen striving to escape their subordination and to obtain their communities. It was class and race legislation."

There were blacks that tried to get homestead land. I live in Kansas, I have been to Nicodemus, one of the places established by Exodusters. I have met descendants of those Exodusters, but the reality here is that blacks escaping the south were poor and while the government established the Freedmen’s Bureau, like most other entities that did not further the interests of whites, it was under resourced. Because it was under resourced the Bureau could not provide the depth of services or advocacy needed to address the issues the newly freed slaves faced. On top of that, it was only meant to be temporary. While whites were given free land, members of our government decided that providing the newly freed slaves with free land would create dependence on free stuff from the government. Because of that, whites who worked as administrators for the Freedmen’s Bureau decided that blacks needed to raise money for land they were giving away to whites. Now think about that one for a moment. We are talking about people whose free labor those very whites had come to depend upon to make life easier for them woorying about someone else being dependent.

"During a period where many citizens were given public land by the government, Blacks who wanted to be small farm owners had to pay for their land and struggle against obstacles that most of their White counterparts did not. This is especially unsettling given that during the initial phase of the Homestead Act, from 1863-1880, most Blacks had just been freed from slavery, faced active discrimination, and were not in a position to negotiate on equal terms. It was a missed opportunity to not use the Homestead Act as a vehicle for Black self-sufficiency, bringing the freed slaves into the existing economy using existing laws to do something at which they already had some experience. Oliver and Shapiro (1995) argue that outcomes of the Homestead Act are just one of many examples of the racialization of state policy, economic detours to self-employment, and sedimentation of racial inequality that shapes the inequality of wealth between Blacks and whites even today."
Let me point out that there were no government agencies established to aid anyone except freed slaves back then, so freed slaves were being handed an advantage withheld from free blacks
, immigrants and everyone else. Immigrants arrived here with little money and often just the clothes on their backs and were left to sink or swim, live or starve to death. Good faith efforts were made to help freed slaves but were frustrated by the social order of the ex-Confederate states. Perhaps if Lincoln has lived things would have been different, but he was murdered by a Confederate agent.

,
 

Mac-7

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said, you're ignorant. You seem to think because you can claim a law ws passed that it means something. The 14th Amendment didn't stip Jim Crow you ignorant bastard nor did it prevent the acts of violence visited on blacks who tried to get land. But you want to pretend. Pretending is for children.
Listen to the internet tough guy showing off his manhood by using profanity to tell off the white guy

but that doesent hide your own ignorance

being black in the deep south would have been very difficult to impossible for ex-slaves that never had to fend for themselves before

And trekking to distant lands where there was opportunity would be a huge challenge also

but other peoples made the journey from foreign countries thousands of miles away

and so could blacks on the south
 

badger2

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In an intelligent and vibrant American democracy and its media, loss by eminent domain would not reify one race over other races as OP’s example does, which is racist. OP’s argument for justice is thus an argument for injustice. Contingent upon this so-called justice would be examples of many white families, Chinese families, etc.

OP’s resistence to forgetting, the exercise of justice, as Derrida says,

“is also the place of all violences. Because if it is just to remember the
future and the injunction to remember, namely the archontic in junction to guard and to gather the archive, it is no less jsut to remember the others, the other others and the others in oneself. I shall no doubt be unjust out of a concern for justice, since the memory of some entails the forgetting of others. The injustice of this justice can concentrate its violence in the very constitution of the One and the Unique....at once, at the same time, but in a same time that is out of joint, the One forgets to remember itself to itself, it keeps and erases the archive of this injustice that it is.”
(Derrida, Archive Fever)
duh
 
OP
NewsVine_Mariyam

NewsVine_Mariyam

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In an intelligent and vibrant American democracy and its media, loss by eminent domain would not reify one race over other races as OP’s example does, which is racist. OP’s argument for justice is thus an argument for injustice. Contingent upon this so-called justice would be examples of many white families, Chinese families, etc.

OP’s resistence to forgetting, the exercise of justice, as Derrida says,

“is also the place of all violences. Because if it is just to remember the
future and the injunction to remember, namely the archontic in junction to guard and to gather the archive, it is no less jsut to remember the others, the other others and the others in oneself. I shall no doubt be unjust out of a concern for justice, since the memory of some entails the forgetting of others. The injustice of this justice can concentrate its violence in the very constitution of the One and the Unique....at once, at the same time, but in a same time that is out of joint, the One forgets to remember itself to itself, it keeps and erases the archive of this injustice that it is.”
(Derrida, Archive Fever)
duh
If you had bothered to read the article you may have notified this:​
Despite being located on a remote part of the coast, the Bruces were targeted by the Ku Klux Klan and other racist locals. City ordinances were passed to make it more difficult for outsiders to visit the beach, including making it illegal to change clothes in a car or park for more than one hour, Jefferson said. The KKK slashed tires and even left a burning mattress outside a property belonging to the Bruce family. Similar harassment was experienced in other parts of the county, including a Santa Monica beach pejoratively dubbed Inkwell, according to Jefferson.​
Your comment would have more validity had not the cited harassment and threats occurred prior to the seizure.

It's ironic how certain members of society have no concern for justice for others until they perceive themselves as being the recipient of injustice.

You're wrong and a hypocrite to boot.
 
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IM2

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Let me point out that there were no government agencies established to aid anyone except freed slaves back then, so freed slaves were being handed an advantage withheld from free blacks
, immigrants and everyone else. Immigrants arrived here with little money and often just the clothes on their backs and were left to sink or swim, live or starve to death. Good faith efforts were made to help freed slaves but were frustrated by the social order of the ex-Confederate states. Perhaps if Lincoln has lived things would have been different, but he was murdered by a Confederate agent.

,
That's a lie. Now try again because the entire government existed as a program for white advancement . White immigrants came here are were e;igible for things blacks did no get. You keep spinning, and Lincoln was trying to send blacks away.
 

IM2

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Listen to the internet tough guy showing off his manhood by using profanity to tell off the white guy

but that doesent hide your own ignorance

being black in the deep south would have been very difficult to impossible for ex-slaves that never had to fend for themselves before

And trekking to distant lands where there was opportunity would be a huge challenge also

but other peoples made the journey from foreign countries thousands of miles away

and so could blacks on the south
I don't profess to be tough but all information relative to this matter shows your opinion to be incorrect. Whites immigrants used race to oppress blacks. Again, you need to go study what actually happened instead of offering a half baked opinion steeped in racism.
 

Mac-7

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Again, you need to go study what actually happened instead of offering a half baked opinion steeped in racism.
I dont think my opinions are half baked

I dont get paid to spend my time promoting black anger toward white society

I dont buy the white privilege excuse for black failure in the 21st Century

because I hold contemporary black people to higher standards than guilt-ridden white libs do
 

AZrailwhale

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That's a lie. Now try again because the entire government existed as a program for white advancement . White immigrants came here are were e;igible for things blacks did no get. You keep spinning, and Lincoln was trying to send blacks away.
Yep, he wanted them to voluntarily relocate to Liberia where they wouldn't have to face retaliation and racism from ex-Confederates. As far as I know, he had no plans for forced relocation. Lincoln wasn't a saint, he was a product of times he lived in, I don't think there was a person alive anywhere in the world then who thought ANY member of a minority was equal to a white.
In 1865, blacks weren't liked by the WASPs that made up the majority or the country, but then Japanese, Chinese, Italians, Irish, Poles, Czechs, Russians and Indians weren't liked either. If you weren't an Anglo-Saxon you were a second class citizen back then.
 

AZrailwhale

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That's a lie. Now try again because the entire government existed as a program for white advancement . White immigrants came here are were e;igible for things blacks did no get. You keep spinning, and Lincoln was trying to send blacks away.
You are flat lying about White immigrants. They were eligible to starve in the streets, there were no programs for them. In fact a very large percentage were put right back on the boat at Ellis Island if they showed signs of disease, lack of mental capacity or criminality. If an immigrant had a sponsor, the sponsor was legally responsible for them and had to pay for their passage to wherever the sponsor lived and guaranteed that the immigrant wouldn't become a drag on society. Very few immigrants had sponsors.
 

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