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Clear Presence of Jews in Israel during the last 700 years of Ottoman rule

Roudy

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For those propagandists who keep repeating "hardly and Jews in Israel before 1948." That is the biggest pile of garbage ever promoted. In fact Jews were a majority 700 years ago in Ottoman Jerusalem, the holiest city of their faith!

http://badil.org/phocadownload/Badil_docs/publications/Jerusalem1948-CHAP1.PDF

Ottoman Jerusalem: The Growth of the City outside the Walls

EDUCATION IN OTTOMAN JERUSALEM

A publication on education in greater Syria from 1882 showed that there were
a total of 3,854 students in school in Jerusalem (2,768 boys and 1,086 girls) and
235 teachers. The number of girls in Christian schools (Evangelical, Greek
Orthodox, Latin, Greek Catholic, and Armenian) were slightly more than the number
of boys (926 girls to 861 boys). While the majority of these students were Christians
four of the Evangelical schools (two for boys and two for girls) totaling 138 students
exclusively taught Jews. In addition, there were 1,707 students in Jewish schools,
160 of which were girls. In the eight Muslim schools, all of which were for boys,
there were 360 students. In 1891, ¬ďthe Government opened a general [secondary]
school (Rushdiya) [sic] in our city, where all the children of the city, regardless of
their religion, could attend classes in Arabic, Turkish, French, and the basic
sciences.¬Ē It was also recorded that a Muslim school for girls had been established.

Population Growth

Jerusalem had become the largest city in Palestine and the political and cultural
center of the country at the end of the Ottoman era, on the eve of World War I.
Much scholarship on the subject reveals the difficulties in trying to establish
definitive population estimates for this period. The Ottoman census figures of 1905
reveal a total of 32,400 Ottoman nationals in Jerusalem: 13,400 Jews, 11,000
Muslims, and 8,000 Christians. However, these numbers do not reflect those with
foreign nationality living in the city which more than likely would raise the numbers
of Jews and Christians.

Jewish sources for this year contend a much higher number,
including one estimating 50,000 Jews in a total population of 75,000.

The Ottoman sources for 1914 for the entire
Qada' of Jerusalem, give the number of Jewish citizens to be 18,190.

"In 1917, Colonel Zaki Bey, head of the Jerusalem Wheat Syndicate,
reported to Jamal Pasha that Jerusalem had 31,147 Jews in an overall
population of 53,410. These figures were based on birth certificates
and police records; their accuracy is proven by the first compre-
hensive census in Jerusalem, made by the British in 1922. This
census showed a general population of 62,000, including 34,300
Jews."

Statistics that record the residential area of the population in the different parts
of the city were not taken at this period. However, it is known that at the beginning
of the British Mandate, the area of the New City was four times greater than that of
the Old City.

Residents of the New City at the end of Ottoman rule, according to
Ben-Arieh’s estimates, were as follows: 2,000-2,400 Muslims, around 15% of the
estimated 12,000 Muslim Jerusalemites, and 29,000 of the total 45,000 Jews.
Christians constituted 15% of the population in the New City (or approximately 5-
6,000 people).
 
OP
Roudy

Roudy

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Another lame response and epic fail.

Factual history based on Ottoman and Arab numbers, from actual historians and researchers. Here is the bibliography.

Endnotes
1
The author would like to thank Salim Tamari for his valuable comments and generous guidance
throughout the research and writing of this work. The Institute for Jerusalem Studies provided assistance
throughout the research. In addition, the participants in the workshop sponsored by the Institute of
Jerusalem Studies and the Alternative Information Center held in Jerusalem in June 1997, especially
Su'ad al-'Amiri, Nazmi al-Ju'bi, and Beshara Doumani, provided insightful and thought-provoking
comments. A United States Information Agency Grant and the American Center for Oriental Research
in Jordan provided support while I was researching parts of this chapter.
2
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 355; Schmelz,
Notes
p. 62 and
Modern Jerusalem
, pp. 9-22.
3
See, for example, Fawcett, Andrews, Duff, and many others.
4
See, for example, Kark’s
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
, Ben-Arieh, Schmelz, Albert Hyamson’s
Palestine Old and New
, and
A Companion Volume to the Atlas of Jerusalem
, among others.
5
232).
6
Scholch, p. 230.
7
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, pp. 368-9.
8
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 374 citing the newspaper
Hashkafah
, 16 Heshvan 5665 (1904/5), Vol. VI,
No. 11, p. 2; Scholch, p. 237. However, 'Izzat Tannous in his history of Palestine recalls traveling on
donkeyback between Nablus and Jerusalem as late as 1908, saying that ¬ďthere were no paved roads
for vehicles.¬Ē (Tannous, p. 10). Whether this means that they couldn¬ít travel even by carriage is
unclear.
9
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 372 citing David Yellin,
Writings
, I, pp. 9-10 (1896) [Hebrew].
10
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, pp. 375-77. Scholch lists 1865 as the date Jerusalem was connected with
Jaffa which had been connected in 1864. Scholch, pp. 236-7.
11
Lieber, p. 36.
12
Vester, p. 210.
13
Halabi, p. 7; Scholch, p. 239.
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14
Scholch, p. 240; Ben-Arieh, p. 124.
15
Scholch, p. 240.
16
Department of Overseas Trade (1935), p. 63.
17
Scholch, p. 240; Ben-Arieh, p. 124.
18
Scholch, p. 240. See also Ben-Arieh, p. 124 citing Luncz,
Almanac
, VII, p. 171-2; Luncz,
Jerusalem
Yearbook
, V, 1901, p. 283; X, 1905, p. 166.
19
Ben-Arieh, p. 125.
20
Ben-Arieh, p. 138.
21
Khouri, pp. 3-5.
22
Khouri, pp. 3-27.
23
Khalil Sakakini, p. 48.
24
Yaghi, p. 99.
25
Tarif Khalidi, p. 61.
26
Tarif Khalidi, p. 62.
27
Tarif Khalidi, p. 62.
28
Graham-Brown, p. 15, citing ¬ĎEducation in Syria¬í by Shahin Makarius, 1883.
29
Kark and Landman, p. 134 quoting Luncz from the
Jerusalem Yearbook
, IV, 1892, pp. 222-3.
30
Ben-Arieh, p. 138.
31
Ben-Arieh, p. 138; Hala Sakakini, p. 24.
32
Rose, pp. 43-67.
33
Tannous, pp. 27-48.
34
Tarif Khalidi, p. 63.
35
Tannous, pp. 12-15. Tannous credits St. George¬ís with introducing ¬ďtechnique¬Ē to football in
Palestine, and initiating ¬ďa revolution in sports which spread to all other towns in Palestine¬Ē.
36
Roberts, p. 44.
37
Smith, p. 27 quoting Ruppin,
Syrien als Wirtschaftsgebiet
, p. 86.
38
See Vester, p. 156 for an account of such things.
39
Robinson, Edward.
Biblical Researchers in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea
. London,
1841, II, pp. 83 ff as cited in Lieber, p. 34.
40
Ben-Arieh, p. 40.
41
Ben-Arieh, p. 41.
42
Himadeh, pp. 216-220
43
Ben-Arieh, p. 350.
44
Scholch, p. 236.
45
Vester, p. 92.
46
Hala Sakakini, p. 48.
47
Veicmanas, p. 377; see also Asali.
48
Scholch, p. 233.
49
See McCarthy for his comprehensive work on Ottoman population statistics in Palestine.
50
Schmelz, Modern Jerusalem, p. 17, points this out as regards the Jews with foreign citizenship
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TTOMAN
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living in Jerusalem, but neglects to mention foreign Christians as also falling under this category.
51
Ben-Arieh,
Old City
, p. 354 citing Luncz (see note 32, p. 354).
52
Scholch, p. 232.
53
Ben-Arieh,
Old City
, p. 355. According to the Survey of Palestine, the 1922 urban population of
Jerusalem totaled 62,578, with Jews numbering 33,971, Muslims 13,413 and Christians numbered
14,699. (
Survey of Palestine
, Vol. I, p. 148).
54
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 366, citing Press Travel Handbook, pp. 125-6.
55
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 354.
56
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 241. Note the discrepancy in the number of Jews with the Ottoman
estimates given previously.
57
Kark and Landman, p. 131.
58
Kark and Landman, p. 131.
59
For an in-depth discussion of this issue, see Adar Arnon, ¬ďThe Quarters of Jerusalem in the Ottoman
Period¬Ē.
Middle Eastern Studies
, Vol. 28, No. 1. January 1992, pp. 1-65.
60
Arnon, pp. 7-12.
61
Zawaya
plural,
zawiya
singular: It has had a variety of uses throughout the Islamic Near East and
North Africa, but usually housed a
shaykh
and often consisted of the tomb of a saint and a guest
house. Religious instruction was always a central part of their role and some zawaya were centers of
Islamic mysticism (see the
Encyclopedia of Islam
, ¬ďzawaya¬Ē).
62
Kark and Landman, p. 114.
63
Kark and Landman, p. 114.
64
Scholch, p. 233.
65
Scholch, p. 237.
66
Scholch, p. 233 in reference to Vital Cuinet,
Syrie, Liban et Palestine. Geographie Adminstrative,
Statistique, Descriptive et Raisonee
. Paris, 1896-1901, pp. 522, 535, 542, 553 and 563.
67
Shimon Landman’s work is an exception, and he uses many Arab sources in describing the rise of
Muslim building outside the walls of the Old City in the 19
th
century.
68
See, for example, Mujir al-Din’s
al-Uns al-Jalil bi-tarikh al-Quds wal-Khalil
(part 2, p. 60 is one
instance) from the fifteenth century or
Suwwanih al-Ins bi-rihlati li-wadi al-Quds
by Mustafa As'ad
al-Laqimi al-Dumiyati who died in 1764 AD. Landman’s work documents the various qusur of Sheikh
Khalili, al-'Amawi, al-Nathir, al-Khatib, and al-Shihabi families, among others.
69
Kark and Landman, p. 118.
70
Hala Sakakini, p. 1. The Patriarchate’s building is now east of the railway station and has been
converted by Israelis into a theatre, called ¬Ďthe Khan¬í.
71
Interview with M. Spiridon, 13 June 1995.
72
Scholch, p. 234.
73
See 'Adel Manna' for more on this subject.
74
Abu Bakr, p. 47. As a
mutasarrif
, Jerusalem was directly under the control of Istanbul, and no
longer was governed via the
wali
of Syria. The
mutasarrif
was rezoned in 1864.
75
I am grateful to Su'ad al-'Amiri and Nazmi al-Ju'bi for raising this issue.
76
See, for example, Ben Arieh, Kark
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
, Shapiro, among others.
77
See Kark, etc..
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78
Ben Arieh,
New City
, p. 74.
79
Ben Arieh,
New City
, pp. 79-80 referring to Wilson’s map of 1864.
80
Kark and Landman are an exception but their work addresses only Muslim buildings in the
northeastern part of the New City.
81
Vester, pp. 86-87. Letter from Aunt Maggie, 17 January 1883.
82
Ben Arieh,
New City
, p. 455 citing Yellin,
Writings
, I, pp. 386-8, Iyyar 5660 (1899-90).
83
Ben Arieh, p. 115.
84
Rose, pp. 30-31. The husband worked near Jaffa Gate, a fifteen minute walk from his house. He
was given two rooms and a kitchen by the Patriarchate and had to pay three pounds yearly, as he was
receiving rent on the house he had left in Mamillah. He remarried two years later.
85
The British Consulate was the building with the two stucco lions, later a police station during the
British Mandate, and now a bank. Vester, p. 83.
Bibliography
Abu Bakr, Amin.
Mulkiyat al-Aradi fi Mutasarrifiyat al-Quds, 1858-1918. [Land Ownership in
Mutasarrifiyat al-Quds]
. Amman: Abdelhamid Shoman, 1996.
Andrews, Fannie Fern.
The Holy Land under Mandate
. Volumes I and II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1931.
Al-'Arif, 'Arif.
Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh al-Quds
. Jerusalem: Maktabat Al-Andalus, 1992. [3rd edition,
Arabic].
Arnon, Adar. ¬ďThe Quarters of Jerusalem in the Ottoman Period¬Ē.
Middle Eastern Studies
, Vol. 28,
No. 1. January 1992, pp. 1-65.
Asali, K.J. ¬ďJerusalem in History: Notes on the Origins of the City and its Tradition of Tolerance¬Ē in
Arab Studies Quarterly
, Vol. 16, No. 4, Fall 1994.
Asali, K.J. ¬ďJerusalem under the Ottomans, 1516-1831 AD¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
, Edited by K.J.
Asali. Scorpion Publishing Ltd, 1989.
Asali, Kamil.
Mawsim al-nabi musa fi filastin: tarikh al-mawsim wa al-maqam. [¬ĎThe Festival of the
Prophet Moses in Palestine: The History of the Festival and the Shrine’]
. Amman: al-
Jami'a al-Urduniyya, 1990.
Al-'Awdat, Ya'qoub.
Min 'Alam al-Fikr wa al-Adab fi Filistin
. Jerusalem: Dar al-Isra', 1992. [3rd
edition, Arabic].
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua.
Jerusalem in the 19th Century: Emergence of the New City
. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1986.
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua.
Jerusalem in the 19th Century: the Old City
. New York: St. Martin’s Press,
1986.
Al-Dabbagh, Mustafa.
Biladuna Filistin.[¬ĎOur Country Palestine¬í]
. Volume 8, Part 2. Kufr Qara:
Dar al-Shafaq, 1988. [2nd edition, Arabic].
Duff, Douglas.
Palestine Picture
. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1936.
Fawcett, Millicent.
Easter in Palestine
, 1921-22. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd, n.d.
Gabbay, Rony.
A Political Study of the Arab-Jewish Conflict: The Arab Refugee Problem (A Case
Study)
. Geneva: Librairie E. Droz, 1959.
Graham-Brown, Sarah.
Education, Repression and Liberation: Palestinians
. London: World
University Service, 1984.
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ERUSALEM
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Halabi, Osama.
Baladiyat al-Quds al-'Arabiyya (¬ĎJerusalem Arab Municipality¬í)
. Jerusalem: PASSIA,
1993 [Arabic].
Himadeh, Sa'id, "Industry" in
Economic Organization of Palesstine,
edited by Sa'id Himadeh. Beirut
American University in Beirut, 1938.
Hudson, Michael. ¬ďThe Transformation of Jerusalem, 1917-1987 AD¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
,
Edited by K.J. Asali. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1990.
Kark, Ruth and Shimon Landman. ¬ďThe Establishment of Muslim Neighbourhoods in Jerusalem,
Outside the Old City, during the Late Ottoman Period¬Ē in
Palestine Exploration Quarterly
,
July-December 1980, pp. 113-135.
Kark, Ruth.
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
: Planning and By-laws, 1855-1930. Jerusalem: Mount
Scopus Publications, 1991.
Khalidi, Tarif. ¬ďPalestinian Historiography: 1900-1948¬Ē in
Journal of Palestine Studies
, Vol. X, No.
3 (Spring 1981), pp. 59-76.
Khalidi, Walid, editor.
Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876-
1948
. Washington: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1984.
Khouri, Yusef.
Al-Sahafa al-'Arabiyya fi Filistin: 1876-1948. [¬ĎThe Arabic Press in Palestine: 1876-
1948’]
Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1976 [Arabic].
Landman, Shim'on.
Ahya' A'yan al-Quds Kharij Aswariha fi al-Qarn al-Tasi' 'Ashr. [¬ĎThe Elite
Neighbourhoods in Jerusalem outside the Walls in the Nineteenth Century’]
. Tel-Aviv: Dar
al-Nashr al-'Arabi, 1984. [Translated to Arabic from the Hebrew
'Ha-Biniya ha-Aravit Mekhutz
l-Homot Yerushalaim be-Meah ha-Tesha'-'Esre
].
Lieber, Alfred E., ¬ďAn Economic History of Jerusalem¬Ē in John Oesterreicher and Anne Sinai (eds.),
Jerusalem
. New York, 1974
Manna', 'Adel. ¬ďEighteenth and Nineteenth Century Rebellions in Palestine¬Ē in
Journal of Palestine
Studies
, Vol XXIV, No. 1, 1994.
McCarthy, Justin.
The Population of Palestine: Population History and Statistics of the Late Ottoman
Period and the Mandate
. NY: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Roberts, Hugh.
An Urban Profile of the Middle East
. London: Croom Helm Ltd, 1979.
Romann, M. ¬ďThe Economic Development of Jerusalem in Recent Times¬Ē in
Urban Geography of
Jerusalem: A Companion Volume to the Atlas of Jerusalem
. New York: Walter de Gruyter,
1973.
Rose, John H. Melkon.
Armenians of Jerusalem: Memories of Life in Palestine
. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1993.
Sakakini, Hala.
Jerusalem and I: A Personal Record
. Amman, Jordan: Economic Press Co., 1990
[2nd edition].
Sakakini, Khalil.
Kadha Ana Ya Dunya: Yawmiyyat. [¬ĎSuch Am I, World¬í]
Jerusalem: al-Matba'a
al-Tujariyya, 1955 [Arabic].
Schmelz, U.O. ¬ďNotes on the Demography of Jews, Muslims and Christians in Jerusalem¬Ē in
Middle
East Review
, Spring-Summer 1981.
Schmelz, U.O.
Modern Jerusalem’s Demographic Evolution
. Jerusalem: The Institute of Contemporary
Jewry, 1987.
Scholch, Alexander. ¬ďJerusalem in the 19th Century (1831-1917)¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
. Edited by
K.J. Asali. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1990.
Shapiro, S. ¬ďPlanning Jerusalem: The First Generation, 1917-1968¬Ē in
Urban Geography of Jerusalem:
A Companion Volume to the Atlas of Jerusalem
. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1973.
Tannous, Izzat.
The Palestinians: A Detailed Documented Eyewitness History of Palestine Under
British Mandate
. New York: I.G.T. Company, 1988.
Vester, Bertha Spafford.
Our Jerusalem: An American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949
. London:
Evans Brothers Limited, 1951.
Yaghi, 'Abdelrahman.
Hayat al-Adab al-Filastini al-Hadith: min awal al-nahda hata al-nakba.
[¬ĎThe Life of Modern Palestinian Literature: from the beginning of the renaissance to the
crisis]
. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Tujari, 1968 [Arabic]
 

montelatici

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Another lame response and epic fail.

Factual history based on Ottoman and Arab numbers, from actual historians and researchers. Here is the bibliography.

Endnotes
1
The author would like to thank Salim Tamari for his valuable comments and generous guidance
throughout the research and writing of this work. The Institute for Jerusalem Studies provided assistance
throughout the research. In addition, the participants in the workshop sponsored by the Institute of
Jerusalem Studies and the Alternative Information Center held in Jerusalem in June 1997, especially
Su'ad al-'Amiri, Nazmi al-Ju'bi, and Beshara Doumani, provided insightful and thought-provoking
comments. A United States Information Agency Grant and the American Center for Oriental Research
in Jordan provided support while I was researching parts of this chapter.
2
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 355; Schmelz,
Notes
p. 62 and
Modern Jerusalem
, pp. 9-22.
3
See, for example, Fawcett, Andrews, Duff, and many others.
4
See, for example, Kark’s
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
, Ben-Arieh, Schmelz, Albert Hyamson’s
Palestine Old and New
, and
A Companion Volume to the Atlas of Jerusalem
, among others.
5
232).
6
Scholch, p. 230.
7
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, pp. 368-9.
8
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 374 citing the newspaper
Hashkafah
, 16 Heshvan 5665 (1904/5), Vol. VI,
No. 11, p. 2; Scholch, p. 237. However, 'Izzat Tannous in his history of Palestine recalls traveling on
donkeyback between Nablus and Jerusalem as late as 1908, saying that ¬ďthere were no paved roads
for vehicles.¬Ē (Tannous, p. 10). Whether this means that they couldn¬ít travel even by carriage is
unclear.
9
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 372 citing David Yellin,
Writings
, I, pp. 9-10 (1896) [Hebrew].
10
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, pp. 375-77. Scholch lists 1865 as the date Jerusalem was connected with
Jaffa which had been connected in 1864. Scholch, pp. 236-7.
11
Lieber, p. 36.
12
Vester, p. 210.
13
Halabi, p. 7; Scholch, p. 239.
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14
Scholch, p. 240; Ben-Arieh, p. 124.
15
Scholch, p. 240.
16
Department of Overseas Trade (1935), p. 63.
17
Scholch, p. 240; Ben-Arieh, p. 124.
18
Scholch, p. 240. See also Ben-Arieh, p. 124 citing Luncz,
Almanac
, VII, p. 171-2; Luncz,
Jerusalem
Yearbook
, V, 1901, p. 283; X, 1905, p. 166.
19
Ben-Arieh, p. 125.
20
Ben-Arieh, p. 138.
21
Khouri, pp. 3-5.
22
Khouri, pp. 3-27.
23
Khalil Sakakini, p. 48.
24
Yaghi, p. 99.
25
Tarif Khalidi, p. 61.
26
Tarif Khalidi, p. 62.
27
Tarif Khalidi, p. 62.
28
Graham-Brown, p. 15, citing ¬ĎEducation in Syria¬í by Shahin Makarius, 1883.
29
Kark and Landman, p. 134 quoting Luncz from the
Jerusalem Yearbook
, IV, 1892, pp. 222-3.
30
Ben-Arieh, p. 138.
31
Ben-Arieh, p. 138; Hala Sakakini, p. 24.
32
Rose, pp. 43-67.
33
Tannous, pp. 27-48.
34
Tarif Khalidi, p. 63.
35
Tannous, pp. 12-15. Tannous credits St. George¬ís with introducing ¬ďtechnique¬Ē to football in
Palestine, and initiating ¬ďa revolution in sports which spread to all other towns in Palestine¬Ē.
36
Roberts, p. 44.
37
Smith, p. 27 quoting Ruppin,
Syrien als Wirtschaftsgebiet
, p. 86.
38
See Vester, p. 156 for an account of such things.
39
Robinson, Edward.
Biblical Researchers in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea
. London,
1841, II, pp. 83 ff as cited in Lieber, p. 34.
40
Ben-Arieh, p. 40.
41
Ben-Arieh, p. 41.
42
Himadeh, pp. 216-220
43
Ben-Arieh, p. 350.
44
Scholch, p. 236.
45
Vester, p. 92.
46
Hala Sakakini, p. 48.
47
Veicmanas, p. 377; see also Asali.
48
Scholch, p. 233.
49
See McCarthy for his comprehensive work on Ottoman population statistics in Palestine.
50
Schmelz, Modern Jerusalem, p. 17, points this out as regards the Jews with foreign citizenship
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living in Jerusalem, but neglects to mention foreign Christians as also falling under this category.
51
Ben-Arieh,
Old City
, p. 354 citing Luncz (see note 32, p. 354).
52
Scholch, p. 232.
53
Ben-Arieh,
Old City
, p. 355. According to the Survey of Palestine, the 1922 urban population of
Jerusalem totaled 62,578, with Jews numbering 33,971, Muslims 13,413 and Christians numbered
14,699. (
Survey of Palestine
, Vol. I, p. 148).
54
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 366, citing Press Travel Handbook, pp. 125-6.
55
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 354.
56
Ben-Arieh,
New City
, p. 241. Note the discrepancy in the number of Jews with the Ottoman
estimates given previously.
57
Kark and Landman, p. 131.
58
Kark and Landman, p. 131.
59
For an in-depth discussion of this issue, see Adar Arnon, ¬ďThe Quarters of Jerusalem in the Ottoman
Period¬Ē.
Middle Eastern Studies
, Vol. 28, No. 1. January 1992, pp. 1-65.
60
Arnon, pp. 7-12.
61
Zawaya
plural,
zawiya
singular: It has had a variety of uses throughout the Islamic Near East and
North Africa, but usually housed a
shaykh
and often consisted of the tomb of a saint and a guest
house. Religious instruction was always a central part of their role and some zawaya were centers of
Islamic mysticism (see the
Encyclopedia of Islam
, ¬ďzawaya¬Ē).
62
Kark and Landman, p. 114.
63
Kark and Landman, p. 114.
64
Scholch, p. 233.
65
Scholch, p. 237.
66
Scholch, p. 233 in reference to Vital Cuinet,
Syrie, Liban et Palestine. Geographie Adminstrative,
Statistique, Descriptive et Raisonee
. Paris, 1896-1901, pp. 522, 535, 542, 553 and 563.
67
Shimon Landman’s work is an exception, and he uses many Arab sources in describing the rise of
Muslim building outside the walls of the Old City in the 19
th
century.
68
See, for example, Mujir al-Din’s
al-Uns al-Jalil bi-tarikh al-Quds wal-Khalil
(part 2, p. 60 is one
instance) from the fifteenth century or
Suwwanih al-Ins bi-rihlati li-wadi al-Quds
by Mustafa As'ad
al-Laqimi al-Dumiyati who died in 1764 AD. Landman’s work documents the various qusur of Sheikh
Khalili, al-'Amawi, al-Nathir, al-Khatib, and al-Shihabi families, among others.
69
Kark and Landman, p. 118.
70
Hala Sakakini, p. 1. The Patriarchate’s building is now east of the railway station and has been
converted by Israelis into a theatre, called ¬Ďthe Khan¬í.
71
Interview with M. Spiridon, 13 June 1995.
72
Scholch, p. 234.
73
See 'Adel Manna' for more on this subject.
74
Abu Bakr, p. 47. As a
mutasarrif
, Jerusalem was directly under the control of Istanbul, and no
longer was governed via the
wali
of Syria. The
mutasarrif
was rezoned in 1864.
75
I am grateful to Su'ad al-'Amiri and Nazmi al-Ju'bi for raising this issue.
76
See, for example, Ben Arieh, Kark
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
, Shapiro, among others.
77
See Kark, etc..
CHAP1.PM5
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27
28
J
ERUSALEM
1948
78
Ben Arieh,
New City
, p. 74.
79
Ben Arieh,
New City
, pp. 79-80 referring to Wilson’s map of 1864.
80
Kark and Landman are an exception but their work addresses only Muslim buildings in the
northeastern part of the New City.
81
Vester, pp. 86-87. Letter from Aunt Maggie, 17 January 1883.
82
Ben Arieh,
New City
, p. 455 citing Yellin,
Writings
, I, pp. 386-8, Iyyar 5660 (1899-90).
83
Ben Arieh, p. 115.
84
Rose, pp. 30-31. The husband worked near Jaffa Gate, a fifteen minute walk from his house. He
was given two rooms and a kitchen by the Patriarchate and had to pay three pounds yearly, as he was
receiving rent on the house he had left in Mamillah. He remarried two years later.
85
The British Consulate was the building with the two stucco lions, later a police station during the
British Mandate, and now a bank. Vester, p. 83.
Bibliography
Abu Bakr, Amin.
Mulkiyat al-Aradi fi Mutasarrifiyat al-Quds, 1858-1918. [Land Ownership in
Mutasarrifiyat al-Quds]
. Amman: Abdelhamid Shoman, 1996.
Andrews, Fannie Fern.
The Holy Land under Mandate
. Volumes I and II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1931.
Al-'Arif, 'Arif.
Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh al-Quds
. Jerusalem: Maktabat Al-Andalus, 1992. [3rd edition,
Arabic].
Arnon, Adar. ¬ďThe Quarters of Jerusalem in the Ottoman Period¬Ē.
Middle Eastern Studies
, Vol. 28,
No. 1. January 1992, pp. 1-65.
Asali, K.J. ¬ďJerusalem in History: Notes on the Origins of the City and its Tradition of Tolerance¬Ē in
Arab Studies Quarterly
, Vol. 16, No. 4, Fall 1994.
Asali, K.J. ¬ďJerusalem under the Ottomans, 1516-1831 AD¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
, Edited by K.J.
Asali. Scorpion Publishing Ltd, 1989.
Asali, Kamil.
Mawsim al-nabi musa fi filastin: tarikh al-mawsim wa al-maqam. [¬ĎThe Festival of the
Prophet Moses in Palestine: The History of the Festival and the Shrine’]
. Amman: al-
Jami'a al-Urduniyya, 1990.
Al-'Awdat, Ya'qoub.
Min 'Alam al-Fikr wa al-Adab fi Filistin
. Jerusalem: Dar al-Isra', 1992. [3rd
edition, Arabic].
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua.
Jerusalem in the 19th Century: Emergence of the New City
. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1986.
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua.
Jerusalem in the 19th Century: the Old City
. New York: St. Martin’s Press,
1986.
Al-Dabbagh, Mustafa.
Biladuna Filistin.[¬ĎOur Country Palestine¬í]
. Volume 8, Part 2. Kufr Qara:
Dar al-Shafaq, 1988. [2nd edition, Arabic].
Duff, Douglas.
Palestine Picture
. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1936.
Fawcett, Millicent.
Easter in Palestine
, 1921-22. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd, n.d.
Gabbay, Rony.
A Political Study of the Arab-Jewish Conflict: The Arab Refugee Problem (A Case
Study)
. Geneva: Librairie E. Droz, 1959.
Graham-Brown, Sarah.
Education, Repression and Liberation: Palestinians
. London: World
University Service, 1984.
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TTOMAN
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Halabi, Osama.
Baladiyat al-Quds al-'Arabiyya (¬ĎJerusalem Arab Municipality¬í)
. Jerusalem: PASSIA,
1993 [Arabic].
Himadeh, Sa'id, "Industry" in
Economic Organization of Palesstine,
edited by Sa'id Himadeh. Beirut
American University in Beirut, 1938.
Hudson, Michael. ¬ďThe Transformation of Jerusalem, 1917-1987 AD¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
,
Edited by K.J. Asali. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1990.
Kark, Ruth and Shimon Landman. ¬ďThe Establishment of Muslim Neighbourhoods in Jerusalem,
Outside the Old City, during the Late Ottoman Period¬Ē in
Palestine Exploration Quarterly
,
July-December 1980, pp. 113-135.
Kark, Ruth.
Jerusalem Neighbourhoods
: Planning and By-laws, 1855-1930. Jerusalem: Mount
Scopus Publications, 1991.
Khalidi, Tarif. ¬ďPalestinian Historiography: 1900-1948¬Ē in
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, Vol. X, No.
3 (Spring 1981), pp. 59-76.
Khalidi, Walid, editor.
Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876-
1948
. Washington: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1984.
Khouri, Yusef.
Al-Sahafa al-'Arabiyya fi Filistin: 1876-1948. [¬ĎThe Arabic Press in Palestine: 1876-
1948’]
Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1976 [Arabic].
Landman, Shim'on.
Ahya' A'yan al-Quds Kharij Aswariha fi al-Qarn al-Tasi' 'Ashr. [¬ĎThe Elite
Neighbourhoods in Jerusalem outside the Walls in the Nineteenth Century’]
. Tel-Aviv: Dar
al-Nashr al-'Arabi, 1984. [Translated to Arabic from the Hebrew
'Ha-Biniya ha-Aravit Mekhutz
l-Homot Yerushalaim be-Meah ha-Tesha'-'Esre
].
Lieber, Alfred E., ¬ďAn Economic History of Jerusalem¬Ē in John Oesterreicher and Anne Sinai (eds.),
Jerusalem
. New York, 1974
Manna', 'Adel. ¬ďEighteenth and Nineteenth Century Rebellions in Palestine¬Ē in
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, Vol XXIV, No. 1, 1994.
McCarthy, Justin.
The Population of Palestine: Population History and Statistics of the Late Ottoman
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. NY: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Roberts, Hugh.
An Urban Profile of the Middle East
. London: Croom Helm Ltd, 1979.
Romann, M. ¬ďThe Economic Development of Jerusalem in Recent Times¬Ē in
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. New York: Walter de Gruyter,
1973.
Rose, John H. Melkon.
Armenians of Jerusalem: Memories of Life in Palestine
. New York: St.
Martin’s Press, 1993.
Sakakini, Hala.
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. Amman, Jordan: Economic Press Co., 1990
[2nd edition].
Sakakini, Khalil.
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Jerusalem: al-Matba'a
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Schmelz, U.O. ¬ďNotes on the Demography of Jews, Muslims and Christians in Jerusalem¬Ē in
Middle
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, Spring-Summer 1981.
Schmelz, U.O.
Modern Jerusalem’s Demographic Evolution
. Jerusalem: The Institute of Contemporary
Jewry, 1987.
Scholch, Alexander. ¬ďJerusalem in the 19th Century (1831-1917)¬Ē in
Jerusalem in History
. Edited by
K.J. Asali. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1990.
Shapiro, S. ¬ďPlanning Jerusalem: The First Generation, 1917-1968¬Ē in
Urban Geography of Jerusalem:
A Companion Volume to the Atlas of Jerusalem
. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1973.
Tannous, Izzat.
The Palestinians: A Detailed Documented Eyewitness History of Palestine Under
British Mandate
. New York: I.G.T. Company, 1988.
Vester, Bertha Spafford.
Our Jerusalem: An American Family in the Holy City, 1881-1949
. London:
Evans Brothers Limited, 1951.
Yaghi, 'Abdelrahman.
Hayat al-Adab al-Filastini al-Hadith: min awal al-nahda hata al-nakba.
[¬ĎThe Life of Modern Palestinian Literature: from the beginning of the renaissance to the
crisis]
. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Tujari, 1968 [Arabic]

Now the facts. About 8,000 Jews in Palestine in 1844-1856. From source documents, not your propaganda.

upload_2017-8-25_22-57-39.png
 
OP
Roudy

Roudy

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Try to be relevant, we are talking about the population of Jerusalem during Ottoman rule, not all of "Palestine" which did not even exist during the 700 years of Ottoman rule.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Jerusalem After 1291

"...Present condition of the City: (1907 edition)

Jerusalem (El Quds) is the capital of a sanjak and the seat of a mutasarrif directly dependent on the Sublime Porte. In the administration of the sanjak the mutasarrif is assisted by a council called majlis ida ra; the city has a municipal government (majlis baladiye) presided over by a mayor. The total population is estimated at 66,000. The Turkish census of 1905, which counts only Ottoman subjects, gives these figures:
Jews, 45,000; Moslems, 8,000; Orthodox Christians, 6000;
Latins, 2500; Armenians, 950; Protestants, 800; Melkites, 250; Copts, 150; Abyssinians, 100; Jacobites, 100; Catholic Syrians, 50. During the Nineteenth century large suburbs to the north and east have grown up, chiefly for the use of the Jewish colony. These suburbs contain nearly Half the present population...""

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Growth of Jerusalem 1838-Present

....... Jews Muslims Christians Total
1838 6,000 5,000 3,000 14,000
1844 7,120 5,760 3,390 16,270 ..... ..The First Official Ottoman Census
1876 12,000 7,560 5,470 25,030 .... .....Second """"""""""
1905 40,000 8,000 10,900 58,900 ....... Third/last, detailed in CathEncyc above
1948 99,320 36,680 31,300 167,300
1990 353,200 124,200 14,000 491,400
1992 385,000 150,000 15,000 550,000

http://www.testimony-magazine.org/jerusalem/bring.htm
 
OP
Roudy

Roudy

Diamond Member
Joined
Mar 16, 2012
Messages
52,332
Reaction score
10,628
Points
2,030
Try to be relevant, we are talking about the population of Jerusalem during Ottoman rule, not all of "Palestine" which did not even exist during the 700 years of Ottoman rule.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Jerusalem After 1291

"...Present condition of the City: (1907 edition)

Jerusalem (El Quds) is the capital of a sanjak and the seat of a mutasarrif directly dependent on the Sublime Porte. In the administration of the sanjak the mutasarrif is assisted by a council called majlis ida ra; the city has a municipal government (majlis baladiye) presided over by a mayor. The total population is estimated at 66,000. The Turkish census of 1905, which counts only Ottoman subjects, gives these figures:
Jews, 45,000; Moslems, 8,000; Orthodox Christians, 6000;
Latins, 2500; Armenians, 950; Protestants, 800; Melkites, 250; Copts, 150; Abyssinians, 100; Jacobites, 100; Catholic Syrians, 50. During the Nineteenth century large suburbs to the north and east have grown up, chiefly for the use of the Jewish colony. These suburbs contain nearly Half the present population...""

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Growth of Jerusalem 1838-Present

....... Jews Muslims Christians Total
1838 6,000 5,000 3,000 14,000
1844 7,120 5,760 3,390 16,270 ..... ..The First Official Ottoman Census
1876 12,000 7,560 5,470 25,030 .... .....Second """"""""""
1905 40,000 8,000 10,900 58,900 ....... Third/last, detailed in CathEncyc above
1948 99,320 36,680 31,300 167,300
1990 353,200 124,200 14,000 491,400
1992 385,000 150,000 15,000 550,000

http://www.testimony-magazine.org/jerusalem/bring.htm
Not sure what that has to do with the current cleansing paradigm.
The claim that there were no Jews in Israel before 1948 is patently false. Jews maintained a presence in the land and their holy cities throughout the millennia, despite all the ethnic cleansings and pogroms that occurred.
 

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