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White Racism did Not End When Slavery ended

IM2

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I have said this more than once, blacks' grievance with America left slavery as the sole issue pretty much the day after blacks were informed of emancipation. We were freed from slavery even though we received no compensation for the economic damage caused. Today’s grievances include not just slavery but the 100 years after emancipation and modern forms of racism. Simply put, human rights violations against blacks did not end after slavery. Dr. Carol Anderson points this out in detail in her book, “White Rage.”

Dr. Anderson chronicles the many methods whites used in the years after slavery to restrict the right for blacks to move around freely in America. Whites in the south used any means necessary to discourage blacks from moving north. In the north, whites terrorized blacks competing for jobs with better pay and those trying to live in majority white neighborhoods.

In July 1865, Circular 13 was issued by General Oliver Howard fully authorizing the lease of 40-acre plots of land to the newly freed blacks. As a result of this document, 40,000 formerly enslaved people began work on land that now belonged to them. But President Andrew Johnson killed these two orders and removed those 40,000 blacks from that land while destroying any income they could make. He gave the land back to whites. Johnson pardoned most of the confederate leaders, allowing them to regain power. By doing this, Johnson unleashed a reign of terror on blacks that was nothing short of attempted ethnic cleansing.

On the evening of Saturday, July 19th, 1919, in Washington D.C., a mob of mad drunken white World War 1 veterans invaded a black neighborhood because of a rumor spread about a black man assaulting the wife of a white navy man.54 Those mad white men proceeded to beat all the blacks they found.

The Omaha Race Riot occurred on September 28–29, 1919. Three conditions: black property acquisition, economic anxiety, and black male sexual aggression claims have been the standard for white violence against blacks throughout American history. The Omaha Riots met at least 2 of the three conditions. The eventual lynching of Will Brown began with reports in local media about the alleged rape of a woman on September 25, 1919. Brown was lynched, shot up after he was dead, dragged through the streets of Omaha, and set on fire. He had committed no crime.

On December 23, 1945, Mr. and Mrs. H. O’Day Short and their two little children were burned to death in Fontana, California.

For the first five years after WW2 in Chicago alone, there were over 300 documented acts of terror by whites against blacks who tried living in or near majority-white neighborhoods.65 In 1951, a black man named Harvey Clark and his family tried to move into the Cicero neighborhood of Chicago. A white mob vandalized his home and burned his furniture in the front yard. The police did nothing.

In 1955, there were more than 200 recorded acts of violence against blacks by whites in Philadelphia

In 1964, blacks again tried renting an apartment in Cicero, their apartment was vandalized. Police acted this time. They entered the apartment, took out the furniture, and told the people they were evicted.

During the same period in Detroit, there were over 200 acts of terror to stop black families from moving to the suburbs.

In 15 years from 1950 to 1965, more than 100 recorded bombings of black-owned homes occurred in Los Angeles.

In 1987, another black family tried moving into Cicero. They got gunfire and firebombs.71 Again, that was in 1987, not 1887.

Consistently since the end of slavery, there has been a section of the white community who violently resisted the efforts of blacks to live successfully in America. During this time, prosperous blacks faced acts of terror while thriving black communities got destroyed by mobs of angry whites who felt they were losing out because blacks had acquired the same things whites had. This kind of terrorism has gone long ignored in understanding the brutality and hardcore resistance to black freedom in America.

After slavery ended, southern whites went on a campaign of what can only be called ethnic cleansing. The federal government turned tail and ran by establishing a legal principle whereby the federal government did not have to enforce the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments by using states’ rights. Apartheid became the law of the land due to the Plessy decision. Blacks tried to escape the oppressive conditions in the south by coming north, but they found just how united the states were relative to white supremacy. At every turn, whenever blacks tried reaching for what this country claims to promise, we have run into a brick wall, or more accurately, a white mob.

And I didn't include the government programs helping whites that blacks were excluded from.

July 19, 1919: White Mobs in Uniform Attack African Americans — Who Fight Back — in Washington, D.C., July 19, 1919: White Mobs in Uniform Attack African Americans — Who Fight Back — in Washington, D.C. - Zinn Education Project

Anthony Dittmar, Omaha Race Riot, Omaha Race Riot – Discovering 1919

B.C Franklin, The Tulsa Race Riots and Three of It’s Victims, A Long-Lost Manuscript Contains a Searing Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921

Survivors of 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre share eyewitness accounts, Survivors of 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre share eyewitness accounts - The Cincinnati Herald

William L. Patterson, We Charge Genocide, 4th edition, International Publishers Co., Inc., New York, 2017 pp.60-61

Peter Salwen, A "Northern Lynching," Remembering the Trenton Six Case, August 6, 1998, "A Northern Lynching" - the "Trenton Six" case, 50 years later

Sharon Schlegel, Harrowing case of the "Trenton Six", The Times of Trenton, Jan 28, 2012, Updated Mar 30, 2019, https://www.nj.com/times opinion/2012/01/harrowing_case_of_the_trenton.html

Richard Rothstein, Color of Law, Liverright Publishing, pp.144, 2018

Jae Jones, Cicero Race Riot: Mob of 4,000 Destroys Apartment Building with One Black Family Tenants, November 14, 2018, Cicero Race Riot: Mob of 4,000 Destroys Apartment Building with One Black Family Tenantsblack-family-tenants/

Charles Abrams, The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero: Segregated Housing's Inevitable Dividend, The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero:Segregated Housing's Inevitable Dividend

Christy Clark-Pujara and Anna-Lisa Cox, How the Myth of a Liberal North Erases a Long History of White Violence, smithsonianmag.com, August 27, 2020, How the Myth of a Liberal North Erases a Long History of White Violence
 

Confederate Soldier

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Did anyone say that it did end???


No...




And constantly bitching at us for shit we didn't do, and are not doing, isn't helping your situation either.
 

Gabe Lackmann

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In 1987, another black family tried moving into Cicero. They got gunfire and firebombs.71 Again, that was in 1987, not 1887.
As opposed to what blacks do to their own neighborhoods?

1654462870339.png


You savages could destroy a crow bar in a sand pit.
 
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IM2

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IM2

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Citygroup did a study focusing on U.S. GDP from 2000 until 2020. The study determined that since the year 2000, continuing discriminatory practices in four areas resulted in a loss of 16 trillion dollars in GDP. The breakdown is as follows:

“Closing the Black racial wage gap 20 years ago might have provided an additional $2.7 trillion in income available for consumption and investment.

Improving access to housing credit might have added an additional 770,000 Black homeowners over the last 20 years, with combined sales and expenditures adding another $218 billion to GDP over that time.

Facilitating increased access to higher education (college, graduate, and vocational schools) for Black students might have bolstered lifetime incomes that in aggregate sums to $90 to $113 billion.

Providing fair and equitable lending to Black entrepreneurs might have resulted in the creation of an additional $13 trillion in business revenue over the last 20 years. This could have been used for investments in labor, technology, capital equipment, and structures and 6.1 million jobs might have been created per year.”


This is still happening long after slavery and in our lifetimes. You people who have problems can bellow all you want, but this is the reality.
 

LeftofLeft

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I have said this more than once, blacks' grievance with America left slavery as the sole issue pretty much the day after blacks were informed of emancipation. We were freed from slavery even though we received no compensation for the economic damage caused. Today’s grievances include not just slavery but the 100 years after emancipation and modern forms of racism. Simply put, human rights violations against blacks did not end after slavery. Dr. Carol Anderson points this out in detail in her book, “White Rage.”

Dr. Anderson chronicles the many methods whites used in the years after slavery to restrict the right for blacks to move around freely in America. Whites in the south used any means necessary to discourage blacks from moving north. In the north, whites terrorized blacks competing for jobs with better pay and those trying to live in majority white neighborhoods.

In July 1865, Circular 13 was issued by General Oliver Howard fully authorizing the lease of 40-acre plots of land to the newly freed blacks. As a result of this document, 40,000 formerly enslaved people began work on land that now belonged to them. But President Andrew Johnson killed these two orders and removed those 40,000 blacks from that land while destroying any income they could make. He gave the land back to whites. Johnson pardoned most of the confederate leaders, allowing them to regain power. By doing this, Johnson unleashed a reign of terror on blacks that was nothing short of attempted ethnic cleansing.

On the evening of Saturday, July 19th, 1919, in Washington D.C., a mob of mad drunken white World War 1 veterans invaded a black neighborhood because of a rumor spread about a black man assaulting the wife of a white navy man.54 Those mad white men proceeded to beat all the blacks they found.

The Omaha Race Riot occurred on September 28–29, 1919. Three conditions: black property acquisition, economic anxiety, and black male sexual aggression claims have been the standard for white violence against blacks throughout American history. The Omaha Riots met at least 2 of the three conditions. The eventual lynching of Will Brown began with reports in local media about the alleged rape of a woman on September 25, 1919. Brown was lynched, shot up after he was dead, dragged through the streets of Omaha, and set on fire. He had committed no crime.

On December 23, 1945, Mr. and Mrs. H. O’Day Short and their two little children were burned to death in Fontana, California.

For the first five years after WW2 in Chicago alone, there were over 300 documented acts of terror by whites against blacks who tried living in or near majority-white neighborhoods.65 In 1951, a black man named Harvey Clark and his family tried to move into the Cicero neighborhood of Chicago. A white mob vandalized his home and burned his furniture in the front yard. The police did nothing.

In 1955, there were more than 200 recorded acts of violence against blacks by whites in Philadelphia

In 1964, blacks again tried renting an apartment in Cicero, their apartment was vandalized. Police acted this time. They entered the apartment, took out the furniture, and told the people they were evicted.

During the same period in Detroit, there were over 200 acts of terror to stop black families from moving to the suburbs.

In 15 years from 1950 to 1965, more than 100 recorded bombings of black-owned homes occurred in Los Angeles.

In 1987, another black family tried moving into Cicero. They got gunfire and firebombs.71 Again, that was in 1987, not 1887.

Consistently since the end of slavery, there has been a section of the white community who violently resisted the efforts of blacks to live successfully in America. During this time, prosperous blacks faced acts of terror while thriving black communities got destroyed by mobs of angry whites who felt they were losing out because blacks had acquired the same things whites had. This kind of terrorism has gone long ignored in understanding the brutality and hardcore resistance to black freedom in America.

After slavery ended, southern whites went on a campaign of what can only be called ethnic cleansing. The federal government turned tail and ran by establishing a legal principle whereby the federal government did not have to enforce the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments by using states’ rights. Apartheid became the law of the land due to the Plessy decision. Blacks tried to escape the oppressive conditions in the south by coming north, but they found just how united the states were relative to white supremacy. At every turn, whenever blacks tried reaching for what this country claims to promise, we have run into a brick wall, or more accurately, a white mob.

And I didn't include the government programs helping whites that blacks were excluded from.

July 19, 1919: White Mobs in Uniform Attack African Americans — Who Fight Back — in Washington, D.C., July 19, 1919: White Mobs in Uniform Attack African Americans — Who Fight Back — in Washington, D.C. - Zinn Education Project

Anthony Dittmar, Omaha Race Riot, Omaha Race Riot – Discovering 1919

B.C Franklin, The Tulsa Race Riots and Three of It’s Victims, A Long-Lost Manuscript Contains a Searing Eyewitness Account of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921

Survivors of 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre share eyewitness accounts, Survivors of 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre share eyewitness accounts - The Cincinnati Herald

William L. Patterson, We Charge Genocide, 4th edition, International Publishers Co., Inc., New York, 2017 pp.60-61

Peter Salwen, A "Northern Lynching," Remembering the Trenton Six Case, August 6, 1998, "A Northern Lynching" - the "Trenton Six" case, 50 years later

Sharon Schlegel, Harrowing case of the "Trenton Six", The Times of Trenton, Jan 28, 2012, Updated Mar 30, 2019, https://www.nj.com/times opinion/2012/01/harrowing_case_of_the_trenton.html

Richard Rothstein, Color of Law, Liverright Publishing, pp.144, 2018

Jae Jones, Cicero Race Riot: Mob of 4,000 Destroys Apartment Building with One Black Family Tenants, November 14, 2018, Cicero Race Riot: Mob of 4,000 Destroys Apartment Building with One Black Family Tenantsblack-family-tenants/

Charles Abrams, The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero: Segregated Housing's Inevitable Dividend, The Time Bomb That Exploded in Cicero:Segregated Housing's Inevitable Dividend

Christy Clark-Pujara and Anna-Lisa Cox, How the Myth of a Liberal North Erases a Long History of White Violence, smithsonianmag.com, August 27, 2020, How the Myth of a Liberal North Erases a Long History of White Violence
And when did Black racism stop?
 
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IM2

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And when did Black racism stop?

When you can show me where blacks have done EVERYTHING whites have done as it pertains to racism IN AMERICA, then we will have that discussion.
 

MizMolly

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When you can show me where blacks have done EVERYTHING whites have done as it pertains to racism IN AMERICA, then we will have that discussion.
Lol don’t you mean does, present tense? You deflected on the question. The word EVERYTHING has nothing to do with racism.
 

LeftofLeft

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When you can show me where blacks have done EVERYTHING whites have done as it pertains to racism IN AMERICA, then we will have that discussion.
They do it every day in America. Elite Blacks sell out non-elite Blacks. Actually, Elites universally do it but why would Elite Blacks do it?
 
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IM2

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Did anyone say that it did end???


No...




And constantly bitching at us for shit we didn't do, and are not doing, isn't helping your situation either.
The problem with your comment is there are whites still doing it. Do you guys really think that all you have to do is repeat how you aren't doing it and that even as we keep seeing things done, that we are just supposed to agree? I mean wth are you thinking? That because the "No blacks allowed" signs are gone that everything stopped? That's like saying Ford quit making cars after the Model T was done.
 
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IM2

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They do it every day in America. Elite Blacks sell out non-elite Blacks. Actually, Elites universally do it but why would Elite Blacks do it?
I'm talking about blacks making laws or policies targeting whites with the intent to decrease or exclude whites from opportunities.
 
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Elie Mystal wrote an article in The Nation titled, “No Attack on Voting Rights Is Too Racist for This Supreme Court.”14 In this article, Mystal begins by citing Merrill vs. Milligan. Merrill vs. Milligan is a redistricting case taken to the Supreme Court from the state of Alabama. The case was brought before the supreme court because Alabama used racial gerrymandering in its redistricting process. Racial gerrymandering is illegal, and according to Chief Justice Roberts in Shelby vs. Holder, such gerrymandering is a thing of the past.

The black population of Alabama is 25 percent. Due to redistricting done after the 2010 Census, Alabama had a black legislative representation of 14 percent. Alabama diluted black representation by creating one big majority-black district. I don’t think I have to say much more than this is Alabama for you to understand the problem.

"In five of the six redistricting cycles since 1960, the U.S. Department of Justice or federal courts have found that Alabama’s legislative districts — congressional, state, or both — violate the rights of voters under the U.S. Constitution or the Voting Rights Act." - NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Shelby County is in Alabama, but the Supreme Court decided to gut provisions of the Voting Rights Act in 2013 even while Alabama used the 2011 map that diluted black representation.
In a 5-4 decision made on February 7, 2022, The Supreme Court of the United States of America decided to let Alabama maintain racially gerrymandered voting districts, thereby continuing the underrepresentation of blacks in state and federal legislatures.

That's one example Molly. The simple fact here is you speak without knowing what you are talking about. Jim Crow racism is out of style. It's done differently now and you know it.
 

LeftofLeft

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I'm talking about blacks making laws or policies targeting whites with the intent to decrease or exclude whites from opportunities.
Blacks making laws and policies targeting whites or exclude whites from opportunities?? I’ve seen it most of my life in US cities run by Blacks. Next!
 

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The problem with your comment is there are whites still doing it. Do you guys really think that all you have to do is repeat how you aren't doing it and that even as we keep seeing things done, that we are just supposed to agree? I mean wth are you thinking? That because the "No blacks allowed" signs are gone that everything stopped? That's like saying Ford quit making cars after the Model T was done.


You assume that a racist is in every shadow, in every crevice and behind every door. That's what is annoying. Its a problem that is shrinking and dying off on a daily basis. White children are taught growing up to practically fear being racist. The older racists are dying off, and the supposed skinheads etc. are a shrinking minority. Your boogeyman isn't nearly as bad or prevalent as you make it.
 

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IM2, thank you for posting a clear, concise, and convincing essay on the issue of anti-Black racism in the wake of - let's say - the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.

The question for today is, what are the vestiges of that racism to today's Blacks?

Assume that few Blacks (percentage-wise) are born into families with generational wealth, as many "whites" are. (But still, most American "whites" inherit little from their parents, and most of that is when they are nearing retirement age anyway, so it doesn't significantly help their quality of life in the most important years).

So, all other things being equal, most Blacks start their adult lives with nothing, as do a plurality of "whites." So what? If you "play by the rules," you get the best job(s) you can, support yourself, usually get married to someone who is also working, and the two of you begin the long process of increasing income and accumulating assets - just like working-class "whites" do.

What are the impediments to Black people who pursue this middle-class lifestyle? They are gone. Very few employers, all of them small businesses, will reject a job applicant because s/he is Black, and if they do, there are a dozen other employers for whom race is simply not an issue. In fact, essentially all large employers give preference to Black applicants. It is undeniable.

You may not be able to live in the house or apartment that you want to due to racism (assuming you can afford the rent/price), but there are other landlords and sellers who don't give a shit about race. So it's not a real factor.

The real factors that are "holding the Black [man] down" are self-imposed, and they start with single-parent households (70+%). Same old song.

What I'd like to see is a comparison of different demographic groups citing data ONLY for people who play by the rules. Working class whites with no college degree who marry, have kids, etc., vs working class Blacks with no college degree who adopt the same lifestyle. Intact families with kids. Apples to apples. (Similar data for "college grads" would be skewed because so many Blacks obtain bullshit degrees).

I have not seen such a comparison, and I think it's because the social scientists who do such studies would not want those findings to be known, because they would wreck the Narrative that it is racism that is causing the various "inequalities" among the demographic groups.

Just my opinion. As I say, I have not seen that data and I would welcome a link to a reputable source that has accumulated it.
 
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Blacks making laws and policies targeting whites or exclude whites from opportunities?? I’ve seen it most of my life in US cities run by Blacks. Next!
No you haven't. There are no cities completely run by blacks and there has been no city policy made to exclude whites. Next!
 
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IM2

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IM2, thank you for posting a clear, concise, and convincing essay on the issue of anti-Black racism in the wake of - let's say - the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.

The question for today is, what are the vestiges of that racism to today's Blacks?

Assume that few Blacks (percentage-wise) are born into families with generational wealth, as many "whites" are. (But still, most American "whites" inherit little from their parents, and most of that is when they are nearing retirement age anyway, so it doesn't significantly help their quality of life in the most important years).

So, all other things being equal, most Blacks start their adult lives with nothing, as do a plurality of "whites." So what? If you "play by the rules," you get the best job(s) you can, support yourself, usually get married to someone who is also working, and the two of you begin the long process of increasing income and accumulating assets - just like working-class "whites" do.

What are the impediments to Black people who pursue this middle-class lifestyle? They are gone. Very few employers, all of them small businesses, will reject a job applicant because s/he is Black, and if they do, there are a dozen other employers for whom race is simply not an issue. In fact, essentially all large employers give preference to Black applicants. It is undeniable.

You may not be able to live in the house or apartment that you want to due to racism (assuming you can afford the rent/price), but there are other landlords and sellers who don't give a shit about race. So it's not a real factor.

The real factors that are "holding the Black [man] down" are self-imposed, and they start with single-parent households (70+%). Same old song.

What I'd like to see is a comparison of different demographic groups citing data ONLY for people who play by the rules. Working class whites with no college degree who marry, have kids, etc., vs working class Blacks with no college degree who adopt the same lifestyle. Intact families with kids. Apples to apples. (Similar data for "college grads" would be skewed because so many Blacks obtain bullshit degrees).

I have not seen such a comparison, and I think it's because the social scientists who do such studies would not want those findings to be known, because they would wreck the Narrative that it is racism that is causing the various "inequalities" among the demographic groups.

Just my opinion. As I say, I have not seen that data and I would welcome a link to a reputable source that has accumulated it.
The that was in the past and racism is gone argument has no merit. In fact its a lie. Your opinion is totally inaccurate. I don't know why whites like you think that you saying these things makes it real.

People like you have all kinds of excuses, but facts kill everything you say..

In 2017, Demos published a study titled, “The Asset Value of Whiteness: Understanding the Racial Wealth Gap.” On page 10 this statement is written: "The median white single parent has 2.2 times more wealth than the median black two-parent household and 1.9 times more wealth than the median Latino two-parent household."

Amy Traub, Laura Sullivan, Tatjana Meschede and Thomas Shapiro, DEMOS, The Asset Value of Whiteness: Understanding the Racial Wealth Gap, pg. 10 https://www.demos.org/sites/default/files/publications/Asset Value of Whiteness_0.pdf

You said blacks get bullshit degrees as if whites don't. But facks kill that lie too.

"Even after completing undergraduate and graduate degrees, black and Hispanic workers earned less than non-Hispanic white workers with the same, or often less, education."
- Roy Eduardo Kokoyachuk, ThinkNow Research

Kokoyachuck found that blacks and Hispanics with college degrees were paid less than whites and Asians with comparable education. His study showed that blacks and Hispanics who graduated in S.T.E.M majors earned less than whites and Asians with degrees in those same majors. "Even when Blacks and Hispanics go the extra mile and earn professional degrees, their incomes still don’t break six figures. Whites and Asians, however, double their incomes by earning professional degrees, allowing them to make well over $100,000 a year."

Roy Eduardo Kokoyachuk, Education Alone Can't Close The Racial Wage Gap, Education Alone Can't Close The Racial Wage Gap

In 2011, DEMOS did a study named “The Racial Wealth Gap, Why Policy Matters,” which discussed the racial wealth gap, its problems, and solutions and outcomes if the gap did not exist. DEMOS determined that policy decisions primarily drove the racial wealth gap in this study.

“The U.S. racial wealth gap is substantial and is driven by public policy decisions. According to our analysis of the SIPP data, in 2011 the median white household had $111,146 in wealth holdings, compared to just $7,113 for the median Black household and $8,348 for the median Latino household. From the continuing impact of redlining on American homeownership to the retreat from desegregation in public education, public policy has shaped these disparities, leaving them impossible to overcome without racially-aware policy change.” -DEMOS

Laura Sullivan, Tatjana Meschede, Lars Dietrich, & Thomas Shapiro, Amy Traub, Catherine Ruetschlin, Tamara Draut, The Racial Wealth Gap, Why Policy Matters, pg.4
On October 24, 2013, the Kellogg Foundation and Altarum Institute sent out a press release about a report they had done titled, “The Business Case for Racial Equity.” This was a study done by both organizations, using information studied and assessed from the Center for American Progress, National Urban League Policy Institute, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies and the U.S. Department of Justice.

“Striving for racial equity – a world where race is no longer a factor in the distribution of opportunity – is a matter of social justice. But moving toward racial equity can generate significant economic returns as well. When people face barriers to achieving their full potential, the loss of talent, creativity, energy, and productivity is a burden not only for those disadvantaged, but for communities, businesses, governments, and the economy as a whole. Initial research on the magnitude of this burden in the United States (U.S.), as highlighted in this brief, reveals impacts in the trillions of dollars in lost earnings, avoidable public expenditures, and lost economic output.”
-
The Kellogg Foundation and Altarum Institute

Ani Turner, The Business Case for Racial Equity, https://altarum.org/sites/default/f...s-Case-Racial-Equity_National-Report_2018.pdf

On September 3, 2019, Brentin Mock, wrote an article on the Bloomberg.com CityLab website titled, “White Americans’ Hold on Wealth Is Old, Deep, and Nearly Unshakeable” based on a study done by McKinsey and Company called “The economic impact of closing the racial wealth gap.” In this study McKinsey and Company predicted a bleak future if current race based wealth inequality continues.

“It will end up costing the U.S. economy as much as $1 trillion between now and 2028 for the nation to maintain its longstanding black-white racial wealth gap, according to a report released this month from the global consultancy firm McKinsey & Company. That will be roughly 4 percent of the United States GDP in 2028—just the conservative view, assuming that the wealth growth rates of African Americans will outpace white wealth growth at its current clip of 3 percent to .8 percent annually, said McKinsey.

If the gap widens, however, with white wealth growing at a faster rate than black wealth instead, it could end up costing the U.S. $1.5 trillion or 6 percent of GDP according to the firm.”


Brentin Mock, “White Americans’ Hold on Wealth Is Old, Deep, and Nearly Unshakeable,” CITILAB, September 3, 2019, White Americans' Hold on Wealth Is Old, Deep, and Nearly Unshakeable

Nick Noel, Duwain Pinder, Shelley Stewart III and Jason Wright, The economic impact of closing the racial wealth gap, https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mc...ct-of-closing-the-racial-wealth-gap-final.pdf
 

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No you haven't. There are no cities completely run by blacks and there has been no city policy made to exclude whites. Next!
What policies made by whites in the last 20 years are made to exclude Blacks?
 

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