1. The experimental methodology of modern science owes its origin to the biblical concept of a Creator. Prior to the rise of Christianity, the Greeks had defined science primarily in terms of logic. In classical philosophy, things were composed of matter and of form. Science was the knowledge of the forms, and, since the forms were rational and eternal (like numbers), science was logically necessary (as in mathematics). a. Therefore scientific truth depended on logic, and not on empirical findings. b. Clearly, once one grasps the essence of any object, one does not have to examine the object: all the important information about an object is derived by way of deduction. Once one knows that the purpose of a saucepan is to boil liquids, characteristics such as shape and composition follow via a deductive method. Nancy Pearcey, Saving Leonardo, chapter five. 2. Over the centuries, Christian theologians reflected on the biblical text, and began to question the Greek definition of science: the gospel itself has an important empirical element. The apostle John insists that the message of Christs death and resurrection is based on That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, (1 John 1:1). 3. Further, based on the definition of God, that He is omnipotent, He could have made the world in any number of different ways, theologians found the deductive method wanting. Since every facet of the world was contingent upon Gods will, scientists could not sit back and deduce what must be instead, they must go out into the world and discover what is. This meant observe and discover. a. For example, Aristotle had argued that the earth must be at the center of the cosmos, because elements seek their natural place. But Marin Mersenne [French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marin_Mersenne] decried such deductive reasoning, and claimed that there was no must about it. It was wrong to say the center was the earths natural place. God had been free to put it were he liked. It was incumbent upon us to find out where this was. Brooke and Cantor, Reconstructing Nature: The Engagement of Science and Religion, p. 20. 4. This view was stated in the 17th century by Isaac Newtons friend, Roger Cotes, who wrote that nature arose from the perfectly free will of God, and, therefore, we must learn about it from observation and experiments. Roger Cotes, preface to the second edition of Newtons Principia. 5. Theologians, therefore, were responsible for the new definition of science, i.e., knowledge based on empirical evidence.