1. 1861 General P. G. T. Beauregard led the attack on Ft. Sumter. That would be today...Thursday. The forts commander was Major Robert Anderson, a former slave owner who stayed loyal to the USA. The fort fell in 34 hours. Civil War begins as Confederates fire on Fort Sumter....capturing it on Saturday. Sunday, Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers.... Fort Sumter National Monument - Fort Sumter National Monument The nation lost over 600,000 in the Civil War. 2. 1844 The Texas Annexation Treaty signed. Texas enters the union as a territory, not a state- therefore no additional pro-slavery senators. Texas had the right to retain slavery. The US assumed all Texas debt. No territorial boundaries were specified. Tyler presented the treaty to the senate on April 22, 1844, but it was rejected. With President-elect Polk's quiet support, Congress approved annexation on 28 February 1845. The vote in the Senate was 27 to 25. Tyler approved the Joint Resolution, which called for annexation of Texas to be concluded by the end of December 1845, on March 1. However, as this was done via a Joint Resolution of Congress, (the Constitution requires a two-thirds majority vote in the Senate to confirm a treaty)some scholars believe it is not legal under international law. This has led to questions about the Legal status of Texas. https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/exhibits/annexation/part4/page2.html Had not LaSalle explored the Mississippi River, and into Texas, the US would not have had credence in claiming Texas via the Louisiana Territory. 3. 1945 A sea change in America: Roosevelt dies and Truman becomes president. At the time of his ascension to the presidency, Harry Truman didn't know about the atomic bomb.....Joseph Stalin did. Harry S. Truman - Hanford Site Had Truman not become Vice-President, Roosevelt's second V-P, Henry Wallace would have become the President of the United States.... This Henry Wallace: Americas main enemy was Churchill and the British Empire. He insisted that peace would be assured if the United States guaranteed Stalin control of Eastern Europe. (Ronad Radosh, Progressively Worse, The New Republic, June 12, 2000) The great Senator Joseph McCarthy had accused Wallace of being a communist. Henry A. Wallace - An Authentic American Dreamer April was a monumental month in American history.... April 12th was pivotal.