Picture Album Of Pakistan

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I am starting this informative thread about positive side of pakistan’s past,present,future of culture,fashion,food,music,sports,entertainment industry,people( men or women), economy, architecture, famous personalities, education,places, religions,civilizations, science and technology in the field of I.T,medical,space and military. i will post random pictures with some description. i will try to update this thread time to time.i am not “professional” in making threads. some help from USMBers and positive comments will be appreciated.

P.S: This thread is not comparison with any country.Mods have right to delete this thread or posts if it breaches any USMB rules .I do not own these pictures.
 
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Mazar-e-Quaid, Karachi.

Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum refers to the tomb (Mazar) of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It is an iconic symbol of Karachi throughout the world.

Architecture:

The Mausoleum building was designed by Yahya Merchant. It is made of white marble with curved Moorish arches and copper grills reset on an elevated 54 square meters platform. The mausoleum is located in a 53 hectare park and the size of the building is 75x75m on ground and 43m high, built on an 4m high platform. In each wall is placed an entrance. 15 successive fountains lead to the platform from one side and from all sides terraced avenues lead to the gates. The cool inner sanctum reflects the green of a four-tiered crystal chandelier gifted by the people of China. Around the mausoleum is a park fitted with strong beamed spot-lights which at night project light on the white mausoleum.
















 
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Pakistan Monument, (National Monument of Pakistan) Islamabad.

The Pakistan Monument in Islamabad, Pakistan, is a national monument representing the nation's four provinces and three territories. After a competition among many renowned architects, Arif Masood’s plan was selected for the final design. The blooming flower shape of the monument represents Pakistan's progress as a rapidly developing country. The four main petals of the monument represent the four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh), while the three smaller petals represent the three territories (Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas). The Monument has been designed to reflect the culture and civilization of the country and depicts the story of the Pakistan Movement, dedicated to those who sacrificed themselves for future generations.

From air the monument looks like a star (center) and a crescent moon (formed by walls forming the petals), these represent the star and crescent on Pakistan's flag.

Structure.

The monument is located at the west viewpoint of the Shakarparian Hills, and is spread over a total area of 2.8 hectares. The high location makes the monument visible from across the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The foundation stone was laid on 25 May 2004 and the complex was completed by the end of 2006 for inauguration on 23 March 2007. The total cost incurred was more than Rs.580 million.

The structure comprises four blossoming flower petals, built of granite, representing the unity of Pakistani people. The inner walls of the petals are decorated with murals. The central platform is made in the shape of a five-pointed star which is surrounded by a water body. A metallic crescent surrounding the star is inscribed with sayings of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and poetry of Allama Iqbal.

Murals.

The murals on the inside of large petals are based on Islamic architecture, and were decorated by a team of artists led by Kausar Jahan and Zarar Haider Babri, who spent a total of 119,000 hours on the artwork.The first petal features the Malki Tombs, Shahjahan Mosque, Rohtas Fort, Gawadar, and Faisal Mosque. The second petal depicts the images of Quiad-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Fatima Jinnah, Minar-e-Pakistan, Badshahi Mosque, Shila Tunnel, Karakorum Highway and a group of cheering people at Jinnah's public appearance. The third petal reflects Allama Iqbal, the Shah Rukn-e-Alam's Tomb, Mahabat Khan Mosque, Indus Valley Civilization, Lahore Fort and Indus River Delta. The fourth petal comprises the images of Sheesh Mehal, Lahore, Shalamar Gardens, the Uch Sharif Tomb, Islamia College Peshawar, the Ziarat Residency, the Khyber Pass and a polo match.






















 
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University of Karachi. (KU)

The University of Karachi (or KU) is a public university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It serves an on-campus student population of more than 24,000. According to the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, it is ranked among the top three universities of the country. In 2008 the university entered the THE-QS World University Rankings for the top 500 universities in the world.The University of Karachi holds a unique position in the country's educational system. As a respected research and reaching institution, it is committed to intellectual leadership, and to excellence in both developing knowledge and conveying that knowledge to its students. The University of Karachi meets the commitments to preserve knowledge through its instructional and research programs for higher level education.

History.
The University of Karachi was established through parliament as a Federal University in 1951. In 1962 its status was redefined as a university of the province of Sindh. On 23 October 1950 the Karachi University Act was passed and after an amendment in 1951 it was enacted. For the first two years, the University of Karachi remained as an examination University for the affiliated colleges.

In 1953 it started its teaching and research activities at two faculties of Arts and Science. Opened with an intake of 50 students, the university now has 53 Departments and 20 Research Centers and Institutes, under faculties of Arts, Science, Islamic Studies, Engineering, Law, Pharmacy, Management and Administrative Sciences and Medicine. The enrolment of regular students at the campus is around 28,000. There are about 1000 faculty members and more than 3000 supporting staff. On 18 January 1960 the university was shifted to the new campus on a plot of 1,279 acres (5.18 km2) located on the Country Club Road (now University Road), under the vice-chancellorship of Prof. Dr. Basheer Ahmad Hashmi, 23 June 1957 - 22 June 1961.

Campus.
The university campus is spread over 1,279 acres (5.18 km2) of land, situated 12 km away from the city center of Karachi. About four percent of the university's students are foreigners who come from 23 different countries in regions as diverse as Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The university has a high standard of teaching, with many professors being well-known scholars and academics of international repute and possessing Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees from abroad. In a short span of 40 years, the university has risen to acquire a high status in the field of education in Pakistan as well as regionally.


Research institutes and centres.

Applied Economics Research Centre
Area Study Center for Europe
Center of Excellence for Women Study
Center of Excellence in Marine Biology
Center for Molecular Genetics
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine
Dr. A.Q. Khan Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Institute of Clinical Psychology
Institute of Environmental Studies
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Department of Main Communication Network (Nadeem Ahmed In-Charge MCN UoK

Institute of Marine Science
National Center for Proteomics
National Nematological Research Centre
Pakistan Study Center
Sheikh Zayed Islamic Research Centre
Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics
Institute for Sustainable Halophyte Utilization
Marine Reference & Research Collection Center
Department of Chemical Engineering
Department of Zoology
Department of Computer Science.













sheikh zayed islamic center karachi university




































 
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Seaview, Clifton Beach, Karachi.

Clifton Beach or Seaview is a beach in Karachi, Pakistan located on the Arabian Sea. It is one of the neighborhoods of Clifton, Saddar Town. It was the world's most popular silver-sand beach and health resort during 20th century but in 2003 it was affected by an oil spill. The beach has attractions for families and tourists, including beachside horse rides, amusement parks, restaurants, and swimming in the Arabian Sea.

A gated residential area called Seaview Apartments lies close to a section of Clifton beach known as Seaview beach or simply "Seaview". Further ahead lies Darakhshan Villas which comprises residential townhouses and huts.

Another attraction in this area is the recently constructed Cineplex cinema for the people who reside in DHA and Clifton. Hollywood films are mostly screened here along with some selected Bollywood films. The cinemas are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and other entertainment sections.

Soon as the sun sets,flood lights come up and the picnic continues till midnight.

The Defence Housing Authority is fighting erosion by badding more sand, which may change the shape and features of the beach.

Other beaches close to the city include Sandspit, Hawke's Bay, and Paradise Point (a sandstone rock promontory with a natural arch), sonehra point, french beach, cape Mount, Manora beach, but Clifton Beach is the most popular picnic destination in Karachi



































Dead Whale washed up at seaview:






 
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Port Fountain, Karachi.

The Port Fountain or Karachi Port Trust Fountain is located next to the northern rock of a series of islands known as the Oyster Rocks, off the Karachi Harbour. The fountain is the world's third tallest, and rises to height of 620 feet (190 m) when operating at full force. Ever since its inauguration on January 15, 2006, the fountain has been attracting visitors from all over Pakistan. The fountain structure and platform of 135 sq meters (15 m x 9m) is on 16 piles 18 metres deep. Two 835 horsepower (623 kW) turbine pumps deliver nearly 2000 litres of sea water per second at a velocity of 70 metres per second through specially designed 8-inch (200 mm) nozzles. The fountain was constructed at a cost of PKR 320 million (approximately $5.3 million US).

Because the fountain rises so high into the air, it is easily seen from many locations of the city. Many high rise apartments, buildings and surroundings overlook the fountain throughout the community at the beach. The column of water can be seen from several miles at sea. The fountain is located 1.4 km away from the beach to avoid spraying water onto beachside homes. Maximum vapours travel up to a radius of 500 feet (150 m) around the fountain. Eighteen flood lights of 400 watts illuminate the fountain at night.

In a TV program, Minister for ports and shipping Pakistan "Dr. Babur Ghauri" said, he is now planning to construct some fast food outlets and restaurants in the surroundings of the fountain. He said it will give a chance to visitors to watch the beauty of fountain closely and enjoy their meal more with sitting at the centre of the beach.

Clifton Oyster Rocks

The Clifton Oyster Rocks are a series of islets located off the coast of the Clifton neighbourhood of Karachi, Pakistan. Karachi city government decided to include the island as part of its plans to renovate the city. As part of these plans, the Port Fountain was constructed at the base of the northern island. It shoots water up to 620 feet in the air, and is the second-tallest fountain in the world.





Port Fountain





At Night:









 
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Bagh Ibne Qasim (Park) Karachi.

The Bagh Ibne Qasim meaning (Garden of the son of Qasim) is located in Clifton, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Inaugurated by President Pervez Musharraf on February 27, 2007, Pakistan's biggest park constructed under Clifton Beach Development Project on 130 acres (0.53 km2) of land. The old Toyland Theme Park has demolished and Bagh Ibne Qasim was built in its place. The park cost PKR 600 million and has been completed in 300 working days. More than 10 million people visited the park per year. Is also the largest family park in South Asia. This park was named as Bagh Ibne Qasim in memory of the 8th century Muslim conqueror Muhammad Bin Qasim.

Prior to the initiation of construction on Bagh-e-Ibne Qasim, 73 acres (300,000 m2) of land was freed from the grip of land grabbers. The entire Clifton beach, and the area now covered under the park. In June 2005, Sindh Governor Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan took it upon himself to restore this major historical entertainment area to its original splendor. City Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal also played a part in gifting the Jehangir Kothari Parade back to the people of Karachi.

For entertainment purposes of visitors, the park has a turtle pond, in addition to which it also has 24 state-of-the-art washrooms. In order to create an element of originality, the park also has 20 stone canopies. Moreover, hundreds of thousands of unique rose saplings have been planted throughout the park. The park will also feature fast food outlets able to accommodate 500 persons at a time. This park has various murals of dinosaurs that are extremely huge and add to the excitement on the faces of the visitors that come from various parts of Pakistan. This park overlooks the 90 meter Port Fountain of Karachi Port Trust (KPT) and thus adds to the beauty of the Clifton area.



















 
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Jinnah University for Women, Karachi.

Jinnah University for Women was founded in 1998 by an Act passed by the Provincial Assembly of Sindh and is recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The university has 20 departments offering graduate and postgraduate degree courses. The university is currently ranked by HEC as 'W' Category rankings.

Campus.

The Jinnah University campus is divided into five Blocks: Block A, Block B, Block C, Block D, Block E and Admissions section. These Blocks include an Auditorium with the capacity of 400 persons, lecture halls, classrooms, laboratories, museums, faculty rooms and seminar libraries. The university is located at Nazimabad, Karachi.



















 
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A1 Team Pakistan.

A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series.

Management.

In 2008/2009 season, the team is being run by Team Craft, bringing a high level of knowledge and expertise to A1 Team Pakistan.

Previously, A1 Team Pakistan was run by Super Nova Racing and Performance Racing.


History.

2008-09 season

Driver: Adam Khan

The 08/09 season saw wholesale changes not just at A1GP but within Team Pakistan. On September 10, 2008 Adam Khan was announced to hold the dual-role of race driver, and seat holder of A1 Team Pakistan for the 2008-09 season. replacing Arif Hussain who had successfully established A1 Team Pakistan.Team Craft took over the running of the team. The team has not yet participated in the season as Adam Khan is too big for the new Ferrari built chassis.

The chassis was eventually built ahead of Round 5 in Gauteng, however Khan did not race for undisclosed reasons. He did not race in Round 6 either due to a date clash with his ING Renault F1 Team demonstration driver duties, and did not compete in the final round.

2007-08 season

Driver: Adam Khan

A1 Team Pakistan allowed Khan to choose the racing team who would manage the car but despite this he was unable to change the fortunes of the struggling team. The team, selected by Khan, lacked the technical back up that other teams on the grid had, and were unable to do basics such as analysing lap data, holding Khan back. He was still able to pick up Team Pakistan’s one and only point of the season when he finished 10th in the sprint race in New Zealand.

2006-07 season

Driver: Nur B. Ali

Adam Khan left the team, and Nur Ali was recalled to race for Team Pakistan in their second season. Performance Racing took over the running of the team. Ali struggled throughout the season where he was off the pace in nearly every race, but he was able to capture a point when he finished 10th in South Africa in the feature race.

2005-06 season

Drivers: Adam Khan, Enrico Toccacelo

The launch of A1 Team Pakistan was one of the most spectacular, with the A1 Grand Prix Car being presented in front of the Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf was the star guest at the event, hosted by A1 Team Pakistan Chairman Arif Hussain and its Managing Director, Chaudry Salik Hussain. The team was to be run by Super Nova Racing.

Nur B. Ali was the first driver to be named in A1GP and had shown good form during pre-season testing, but was replaced with British born Adam Khan.

The Season started well. In the first race at Brands Hatch, Adam Khan qualified in 7th place and finished the sprint race in 8th. The feature race saw problems in the pit stop and saw Khan finish in 13th. However, despite being managed by the highly successful Super Nova Racing, things went downhill from there and not a single point was scored, until South Africa where Khan crashed during practice forcing him out until the final rounds in China. Here he was able to finish 5th in the feature race which resulted in Pakistan scoring a total of 10 points.

Enrico Toccacelo drove in South Africa for Team Pakistan as the team has already spent much time preparing for the race, also the management wished to not disappoint the Pakistani fans.


















 
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Taxila ,Rawalpindi.

Taxila is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Taxila is situated about 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi in Punjab; just off the Grand Trunk Road. Taxila lies 549 metres (1,801 ft) above sea level. It was a part of India before Pakistan came into being after partition of India.

The city dates back to the Gandhara period and contains the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā which was an important Hindu and Buddhist centre, and is still considered a place of religious and historical sanctity in those traditions. In 1980, Taxila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site with multiple locations. In 2006 it was ranked as the top tourist destination in Pakistan by The Guardian newspaper.

References in texts.

Scattered references in later works indicate that Takshashila may have dated back to at least the 5th century BCE. Takṣaśilā is reputed to derive its name from Takṣa, who was the son of Bharata, the brother of Rama, and Mandavi. Legend has it that Takṣa ruled a kingdom called Takṣa Khanda, and founded the city of Takṣaśilā. According to another theory propounded by Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Takṣaśilā is related to Takṣaka, Sanskrit for "carpenter", and is an alternative name for the Nāgas of ancient India.

In the Great Hindu Epic Mahābhārata, the Kuru heir Parikṣit was enthroned at Takṣaśilā.Traditionally, it is believed that the Mahabharata was first recited at Takṣaśilā by Vaishampayana, a disciple of Vyasa at the behest of the seer Vyasa himself, at the Sarpa Satra Yajna (Snake Sacrifice) of Parikṣit's son Janamejaya.

Takshashila is also described in some detail in later Jātaka tales, written in Sri Lanka around the 5th century.The Chinese monk Faxian (also called Fa-Hien) writing of his visit to Taxila in 405 CE, mentions the kingdom of Takshasila (or Chu-cha-shi-lo) meaning "the severed Head". He says that this name was derived from an event in the life of Buddha because this is the place "where he gave his head to a man".Xuanzang (also called Hieun Tsang), another Chinese monk, visited Taxila in 630 and in 643, and he called the city as Ta-Cha-Shi-Lo. The city appears to have already been in ruins by his time. Taxila is called Taxiala in Ptolemy’s Geography.In the Historia Trium Regum (History of the Three Kings) composed by John of Hildesheim around 1375, the city is called Egrisilla.

Political history.

Historically, Takṣaśilā lay at the crossroads of three major trade routes:
1.The uttarāpatha, the northern road—the later Grand Trunk or GT Road — the royal road which connected Gandhara in the west to the kingdom of Magadha and its capital Pāṭaliputra in the Ganges valley in the east.
2.The northwestern route through Bactria, Kāpiśa, and Puṣkalāvatī.
3.The Sindu (English: Indus river) route from Kashmir and Central Asia, via Śri nagara, Mansehra, and the Haripur valley across the Khunjerab Pass to the Silk Road in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. The Khunjerab passes between Kashmir and Xinjiang—the current Karakoram highway—and was traversed in antiquity.

Owing to its strategic location, Taxila has changes hands many times over the centuries, with many empires vying for its control.

c. 518 BCE – Darius the Great annexes Takṣaśilā to the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326 BCE – Alexander the Great receives submission of King Āmbhi of Takṣaśilā, named Taxiles by Greek sources after his capital.
321–317 BCE Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan empire in eastern India, makes himself master of northern and northwestern India, including Panjab. Chandragupta Maurya's advisor Kautilya (also known as Chanakya) was a teacher at Takṣaśilā.
During the reign of Chandragupta's grandson Aśoka, Takṣaśilā became a great Buddhist centre of learning. Nonetheless, Takṣaśilā was briefly the centre of a minor local rebellion, subdued only a few years after its onset.
Ashoka encouraged trade by building roads, most notably a highway of more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) linking Pataliputra with Taxila.
185 BCE – The last Maurya emperor, Bṛhadratha, is assassinated by his general, Puṣyamitra Śunga, during a parade of his troops.
Early 2nd century BCE - Indo-Greeks build new capital, Sirkap, on the opposite bank of the river from Takṣaśilā. During this new period of Bactrian Greek rule, several dynasties (like Antialcidas) likely ruled from the city as their capital. During lulls in Greek rule, the city managed profitably on its own, to independently control several local trade guilds, who also minted most of the city's autonomous coinage.
c. 90 BCE – The Indo-Scythian chief Maues overthrows the last Greek king of Takṣaśilā.
c. 20 BCE – Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom, conquers Takṣaśilā and makes it his capital.
c. 46 AD – Thomas the Apostle visits King Gondophares IV.
76 – The date of and inscription found at Taxila of "Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, the Kushana" (maharaja rajatiraja devaputra Kushana).
c. 460–470 CE – The Hephthalites sweep over Gandhāra and Panjab; and cause wholesale destruction of the Buddhist monasteries and stupas at Takṣaśilā, which never again recovers

Ancient centre of learning.

Takshashila became a noted centre of learning (including the religious teachings of Hinduism) at least several centuries BCE, and continued to attract students from around the old world until the destruction of the city in the 5th century. At its height, it has been suggested that Takshashila exerted a sort of "intellectual suzerainty" over other centres of learning in India., and its primary concern was not with elementary, but higher education.Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of sixteen. The Vedas, the ancient and the most revered Hindu scriptures, and the Eighteen Silpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science. Students came to Takshashila from far-off places such as Kashi, Kosala and Magadha, in spite of the long and arduous journey they had to undergo, on account of the excellence of the learned teachers there, all recognized as authorities on their respective subjects.

Famous students and teachers.

Takshashila had great influence on the Hindu culture and Sanskrit language. It is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the strategist who guided Chandragupta Maurya and assisted in the founding of the Mauryan empire. The Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics) of Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself. The Ayurvedic healer Charaka also studied at Taxila.He also started teaching at Taxila in the later period. The ancient grammarian Pāṇini, who codified the rules that would define Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of the community at Takshashila.
The institution is very significant in Buddhist tradition since it is believed that the Mahāyāna branch of Buddhism took shape there. Jivaka, the court physician of the Magadha emperor Bimbisara who once cured the Buddha, and the enlightened ruler of Kosala, Prasenajit, are some important personalities mentioned in Pali texts who studied at Takshashila.



Nature of education.

By some accounts, Taxilla was considered to be amongst the earliest universities in the world. Others do not consider it a university in the modern sense, in that the teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, and there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Takshashila in contrast to the later Nalanda University.

No external authorities like kings or local leaders subjected the scholastic activities at Takshashila to their control. Each teacher formed his own institution, enjoying complete autonomy in work, teaching as many students as he liked and teaching subjects he liked without conforming to any centralized syllabus. Study terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the student's level of achievement. In general, specialisation in a subject took around eight years, though this could be lengthened or shortened in accordance with the intellectual abilities and dedication of the student in question. In most cases the "schools" were located within the teachers' private houses, and at times students were advised to quit their studies if they were unable to fit into the social, intellectual and moral atmosphere there.

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money, and hence any stipulation that fees ought to be paid was vigorously condemned. Financial support came from the society at large, as well as from rich merchants and wealthy parents. Though the number of students studying under a single Guru sometimes numbered in the hundreds, teachers did not deny education even if the student was poor; free boarding and lodging was provided, and students had to do manual work in the household. Paying students like princes were taught during the day; non-paying ones, at night. Guru Dakshina was usually expected at the completion of a student's studies, but it was essentially a mere token of respect and gratitude - many times being nothing more than a turban, a pair of sandals, or an umbrella. In cases of poor students being unable to afford even that, they could approach the king, who would then step in and provide something. Not providing a poor student a means to supply his Guru's Dakshina was considered the greatest slur on a King's reputation.

Examinations were treated as superfluous, and not considered part of the requirements to complete one's studies. The process of teaching was critical and thorough- unless one unit was mastered completely, the student was not allowed to proceed to the next. No convocations were held upon completion, and no written "degrees" were awarded, since it was believed that knowledge was its own reward. Using knowledge for earning a living or for any selfish end was considered sacrilegious.

Students arriving at Takshashila usually had completed their primary education at home (until the age of eight), and their secondary education in the Ashrams (between the ages of eight and twelve), and therefore came to Takshashila chiefly to reach the ends of knowledge in specific disciplines.Both theoretical and practical aspects of the subjects were taught, and particular care was taken to ensure competence of students in case of subjects like medicine, where improper practice could result in disaster. The list of subjects taught at Takshashila underwent many additions over the years, with even Greek being taught there after the Alexandrian conquests. Foreign savants were accorded as much importance as local teachers.

Ruins.

The British archaeologist Sir John Marshall conducted excavations over a period of twenty years in Taxila.

The ruins of Taxila contain buildings and Buddhist stupas located over a large area. The main ruins of Taxila are divided into three major cities, each belonging to a distinct time period.

The oldest of these is the Hathial area, which yielded surface shards similar to burnished red wares (or 'soapy red wares') recovered from early phases at Charsadda, and may date between the 6th century BCE and the late 2nd millennium BCE. Bhir Mound dates from the 6th century BCE. The second city of Taxila is located at Sirkap and was built by Greco-Bactrian kings in the 2nd century BCE. The third and last city of Taxila is at Sirsukh and relates to the Kushan rulers.

In addition to the ruins of the city, a number of buddhist monasteries and stupas also belong to the Taxila area. Some of the important ruins of this category include the ruins of the stupa at Dharmarajika, the monastery at Jaulian, the monastery at Mohra Muradu in addition to a number of stupas.

Taxila today.

Present day Taxila is one of the seven Tehsils (sub-district) of Rawalpindi District. It is spread over an undulating land in the periphery of the Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab. Situated just outside the capital Islamabad's territory and communicating with it through Tarnol pass of Margalla Hills.


Culture.

Taxila is a mix of wealthy urban and rustic rural environs. Urban residential areas are in the form of small neat and clean colonies populated by the workers of heavy industries, educational institutes and hospitals that are located in the area.

Nicholson's obelisk, a monument of British colonial era situated at the Grand Trunk road welcomes the travellers coming from Rawalpindi/Islamabad into Taxila. The monument was built by the British to pay tribute to Brigadier John Nicholson (1822–1857) an officer of the British Army who died in India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the First War of Independence.

In addition to the ruins of Gandhara civilisation and ancient Buddhist/Hindu culture, relics of Mughal gardens and vestiges of historical Grand Trunk Road, which was built by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in 15th–16th centuries, are also found in Taxila region.

Industry.

The industries include heavy machine factories and industrial complex, Pakistan Ordnance Factories at Wah Cantt and the cement factory. Heavy Industries Taxila and Heavy Mechanical Complex are also based here. Small, cottage and household industries include stoneware, pottery and footwear. People try to relate the present day stoneware craft to the tradition of sculpture making that existed here before the advent of Islam.

Taxila Museum, dedicated mainly to the remains of Gandhara civilization, is also worth visiting. A hotel of the tourism department offers reasonably good services and hospitality to the tourists

Education.

The city has many educational institutes including HITEC University and the University of Engineering and Technology Taxila.

In March 2012, The Korea Herald published a news article on tourism in Pakistan, terming Pakistan as "a land of splendors" detailing on aspects of Pakistani landscape, culture and heritage. M/s Gandhara Art and Culture from South Korea intends to establish a post-graduate university, Heritage University of Taxila (HUT), to revive the ancient educational excellence of Taxila and highlight Gandhara civilization.






































































 
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Taxila Museum.

Taxila Museum is located at Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.

Introduction Taxila Museum is situated in Taxila a tehsil of Rawalpindi. This is a site museum and its collection mainly comprises on Gandhara art. These sites at Taxila dated back to 600 BC and 700 BC.


History.

Construction of Taxila museum started in 1918, its foundation stone laid by Lord Chemsford, vicery of India in 1918. Construction was concluded in 1928 and the museum was opened for public by Sir Habibullah then the ministry for Education. Sir John Marshall who was going to be retired from the post of Director General of Archaeological survey of India in 1928, could not complete its original plan. The government of Pakistan constructed the northern gallery in 1998.

Collection and displays.

There are 4000 objects displayed, including stone, stucco, terracotta, silver, gold, iron and semiprecious stones. Mainly the display consists of objects from the period 600 B.C to 500 AD. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain religions are well represented through these objects discovered from three ancient cities and more than two dozen buddhist stupas and monasteries and Greek temples.

Gandharan art.

Taxila Museum has one of the most significant and comprehensive collections of stone Buddhist sculpture from the first to the seventh centuries in Pakistan (known as Gandharan art. The core of the collection comes from excavated sites in the Taxila Valley, partiuclary the excations of John Marshall. Other objects come from excavated sites elsewhere in Gandhanra, from donations such as Ram Das Collection, or from material confiscated by the police and custom authorities. The whole collection contains more than 1400 objects, and 409 have been published.

Numismatic collection.

Taxila Museum is a site museum and is the repository for the majority of the numismatic material found during archaeological work in Taxila. Digging began in 1917 under John Marshall, then director of the Archaeological Survey of India, and continued until 1934. Since those excavations work has continued to the present day. The museum contains a large collection of coins from the period of the Indo-Greeks to the late Kushans. Some of these are published in Marshall's original excavation reports, and an ongoing project exists to publish the full collection.

Inside Texila Museum.




































 
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Jasminum officinale. (National Flower of Pakistan)

Jasminum officinale, known as the common jasmine or just jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to the Caucasus, northern Iran, Afghanistan, the Himalayas and western China. It is also known as poet's jasmine or jessamine, and is particularly valued by gardeners throughout the temperate world for the intense fragrance of its flowers in summer.

Culture.

It is widely recognised as the National flower of Pakistan.


Description.

It is a vigorous, twining, deciduous climber with sharply pointed pinnate leaves and clusters of starry, pure white flowers in summer, which are the source of its heady scent.

Garden history.

Jasminum officinale is so ancient in cultivation that its country of origin, though somewhere in Central Asia, is not certain. H.L. Li, The Garden Flowers of China,notes that in the third century CE, jasmines identifiable as J. officinale and J. sambac were recorded among "foreign" plants in Chinese texts, and that in ninth century Chinese texts J. officinale was said to come from Byzantium. Its Chinese name, Yeh-hsi-ming is a version of the Persian and Arabic name.

Its entry into European gardens was most likely through the Arab-Norman culture of Sicily, but, as the garden historian John Harvey has said, "surprisingly little is known, historically or archaeologically, of the cultural life of pre-Norman Sicily". In the mid-14th century the Florentine Boccaccio in his Decameron describes a walled garden in which "the sides of the alleys were all, as it were, walled in with roses white and red and jasmine; insomuch that there was no part of the garden but one might walk there not merely in the morning but at high noon in grateful shade.Jasmine water also features in the story of Salabaetto in the Decameron.Jasminum officinale, "of the household office" where perfumes were distilled, was so thoroughly naturalized that Linnaeus thought it was native to Switzerland.[8] As a garden plant in London it features in William Turner's Names of Herbes, 1548.

Double forms, here as among many flowers, were treasured in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Medical uses.


Jasminum officinale is also used as an essential oil in aromatherapy. It is specifically used in dermatology as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent. Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. It has shown anti-viral activity in vitro. The effect of an aqueous extract of fresh floral buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum Linn. has been studied on female fertility in rats. The extract produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels.

Jasmine absolute is known as the 'King of Oils', and its heavy, sweet scent is loved by most people. The flowers release their perfume at dusk, so flowers are picked at night and a tiny amount of oil is obtained by solvent extraction. The result is a very expensive oil, but it can be used in low concentrations so it is not that uneconomic to use it in products.

The aroma of jasmine is described as calming and soothing without being soporific, and is indicated for depression and stress - as well as some respiratory conditions. It is indicated for sensitive skin conditions too. But mostly jasmine has a reputation as an aphrodisiac and used for all kinds of sexual problems.

Safety: This oil can cause irritation in some people if used too frequently or in high concentrations, so use with caution, preferably in low concentrations. A major component of jasmine is benzyl acetate (~25%) which is known to be absorbed through the skin and known to be an allergic sensitiser. Those who show allergies to spicy food, perfumes and cosmetics are most likely to react. However, the power of the scent is such that only tiny amounts are required anyway.












 
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Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS)

The Lahore University of Management Sciences, or LUMS, is a residential research university located in Lahore, Pakistan. LUMS was established in 1984 by a group of industrialists and professionals belonging to some of Pakistan's private and public sector corporations. According to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, LUMS is the top ranked Pakistani university among institutions that offer degrees in Business Management and Information Technology in South Asia. In 2011 Pakistani intellectual Dr. Adil Najam was appointed the third Vice Chancellor of the university.

History.

The university was granted a charter by the Government of Pakistan in March 1985. The LUMS Board of Trustees comprises members of the domestic business community, academics, and government representatives. The principal functions of the board are to set policy guidelines and to review the operations of the university. The Board of Governors, as the sponsor of LUMS, raises funds necessary for the university's operation and maintenance.

In 1986, a business school by the name of Lahore Business School was established for an MBA Programme. Later the school was renamed and is known as Suleman Dawood Business School.[After the construction of current campus, LUMS started undergraduate programmes in Economics and Computer Sciences in 1994. In 1996, the School of Arts and Science was introduced to oversee the undergraduate programmes. Master Programmes in Economics, Computer Sciences and Computer Engineering were introduced, followed by doctoral programmes in Computer Sciences, Computer Engineering and Mathematics. A five-year BA-LL.B degree was also added in 2005.

LUMS established the School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law (SHSSL) to oversee the Social Sciences, Economics and Law departments. The School of Sciences and Engineering, for the disciplines of Mathematics, Computer Science and Computer Engineering, was established in 2008.

Research at LUMS.

The Suleman Dawood School of Business has produced more than 600 case studies and has published one of Asia's leading case research journals. Case studies written at LUMS are now used in universities across the world, including MBA programs in other Pakistani universities. In 2011, a case study written by LUMS Professors Shazib Shaikh and Zahoor Hassan won the Ruth Greene Memorial Award of the North American Case Research Association (NACRA)for the best case written outside North America.The faculty at the LUMS School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law (SHSSL) have produced 50 books in the last few years. The LUMS School of Science and Engineering has published in international journals in Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. In 2011 Professor Basit Yameen of the LUMS School of Science and Engineering won the Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship for his work on molecular biology.

National Outreach Programme.

LUMS has launched a National Outreach Programme to reach out to bright students from underprivileged areas of Pakistan. Under this initiative, induction of selected candidates into the academic programs will be facilitated by preparation for the University’s admission criteria and then by provision of full financial assistance to those who qualify. Many students are admitted in LUMS on the basis of NOP. There are also a number of scholarships which are offered on need/academic achievement basis. A preliminary evaluation test is used to screen bright students from the underprivileged areas of Pakistan, which are then given training at LUMS for the common admission test.





















 
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Snow Leopard (State Animal/Predator of Pakistan)


The snow leopard (Panthera uncia or Uncia uncia) is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia. The classification of this species has been subject to change and as of 2000 it is still classified as Uncia uncia by MSW3.and CITES Appendix I. However with more recent genetic studies, the snow leopard is now generally considered as Panthera uncia and classified as such by IUCN. Classically, two subspecies have been attributed but genetic differences between the two have not been settled. The snow leopard is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as globally Endangered (EN).

Snow leopards occupy alpine and subalpine areas generally 3,350 and 6,700 metres (10,990 and 22,000 ft) above sea level in Central Asia. The Snow Leopard Survival Strategy (McCarthy et al. 2003, Table II) compiled national snow leopard population estimates, updating the work of Fox (1994). Many of the estimates are acknowledged to be rough and out of date, but the total estimated population is 4,080–6,590.However, the global snow leopard effective population size (those likely to reproduce) is suspected to be fewer than 2,500 (50% of the total population, or 2,040–3,295).

Snow Leopard is the State Animal/Predator of Pakistan.


Description

Snow leopards are slightly smaller than the other big cats but, like them, exhibit a range of sizes, generally weighing between 27 and 55 kg (60 and 120 lb), with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg (170 lb) and small female of under 25 kg (55 lb).[11][12] They have a relatively short body, measuring in length from the head to the base of the tail 75 to 130 centimetres (30 to 50 in). However, the tail is quite long, at 80 to 100 cm (31 to 39 in), with only the domestic-cat-sized marbled cat being relatively longer tailed.They are stocky and short-legged big cats, standing about 60 cm (24 in) at the shoulder.

Snow leopards have long thick fur, and their base colour varies from smoky gray to yellowish tan, with whitish underparts. They have dark grey to black open rosettes on their body with small spots of the same color on their heads and larger spots on their legs and tail. Unusually among cats, their eyes are pale green or grey in colour.

Ecology

The snow leopard is currently restricted to Asia in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and possibly also to Myanmar.

Its geographic distribution runs from the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan and the Syr Darya through the mountains of Pamir Mountains, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kunlun, and the Himalaya to southern Siberia, where the range covers the Russian Altai mountains, Sayan, Tannu-Ola mountains and the mountains to the west of Lake Baikal. In Mongolia, it is found in the Mongolian and Gobi Altai and the Khangai Mountains. In Tibet it is found up to the Altyn-Tagh in the north.

Estimated Population of Snow leopards in Pakistan between 200-420.
There are also 600–700 snow leopards in zoos around the world.

Source:
List of mammals of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Symbols of Pakistan :: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting & National Heritage (National Heritage & Integration Wing) :: Government of Pakistan.














 
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Markhor (Capra falconeri) (National Animal of Pakistan)

The markhor (Capra falconeri) is a large species of wild goat that is found in northeastern Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan, northern and central Pakistan), some parts of Jammu and Kashmir, southern Tajikistan and southern Uzbekistan. The species is classed by the IUCN as Endangered, as there are fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and the numbers have continued to decline by an estimated 20% over two generations.The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan.



Etymology.

The colloquial name is thought by some to be derived from the Persian word mar, meaning snake, and khor, meaning "eater", which is sometimes interpreted to either represent the species' ability to kill snakes, or as a reference to its corkscrewing horns, which are somewhat reminiscent of coiling snakes.According to folklore, the markhor has the ability to kill a snake and eat it. Thereafter, while chewing the cud, a foam-like substance comes out of its mouth which drops on the ground and dries. This foam-like substance is sought after by the local people, who believe it is useful in extracting snake poison from snake bitten wounds.


description

Markhor stand 65 to 115 centimetres (26 to 45 in) at the shoulder, 132 to 186 centimetres (52 to 73 in) in length and weigh from 32 to 110 kilograms (71 to 240 lb). They have the highest maximum shoulder height among the species in the genus Capra, but is surpassed in length and weight by the Siberian ibex. The coat is of a grizzled, light brown to black colour, and is smooth and short in summer, while growing longer and thicker in winter. The fur of the lower legs is black and white.

Conservation status

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has classified the markhor as an endangered species, meaning it is in danger of facing extinction in the near future if conservation efforts are not maintained. There have been different estimates as to how many markhors exist but a global estimate put the number at less than 2,500 mature individuals.

In culture


The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan. It was one of the 72 animals features on the WWF Conservation Coin Collection in 1976.

Source:
List of mammals of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Symbols of Pakistan :: Ministry of Information, Broadcasting & National Heritage (National Heritage & Integration Wing) :: Government of Pakistan.









 
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Khewra Salt Mine,Khewra.

The Khewra Salt Mine (or Mayo Salt Mine) is located in Khewra, north of Pind Dadan Khan, an administrative subdivision of Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's largest and oldest salt mine and the world's second largest.It is a major tourist attaction, drawing up to 250,000 visitors a year. Its history dates back to its discovery by Alexander's troops in 320 BC, but it started trading in the Mughal era. The main tunnel at ground level was developed by Dr. H. Warth, a mining engineer, in 1872, during British rule. After partition the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation took over the mine, which still remains the largest source of salt in the country, producing more than 350,000 tons per annum of about 99% pure halite. Estimates of the reserves of salt in the mine vary from 82 million tons to 600 million tons.

History

The Khewra Salt Mine is also known as Mayo Salt Mine, in honour of Lord Mayo, who visited it as Viceroy of India. The mine is a part of a salt range that originated about 800 million years ago, when evaporation of a shallow sea followed by geological movement formed a salt range that stretched for about 300 kilometers. The salt reserves at Khewra were discovered when Alexander the Great crossed the Jhelum and Mianwali region during his Indian campaign.

Location

Khewra Salt Mine is situated in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. Located about 200 km from Islamabad and Lahore, it is accessed via the M2 motorway, about 30 kilometers off the Lilla interchange while going towards Pind Dadan Khan on the Lilla road.The mine is in mountains that are part of a salt range, a mineral-rich mountain system extending about 200 km from the Jehlum river south of Pothohar Plateau to where the Jehlum river joins the Indus river.Khewra mine is about 945 feet above sea level and about 2400 feet into the mountain from the mine entrance. The underground mine covers an area of 110 km2.

Production

Estimates of the total reserves of salt in the mines range from 82 million tons to 600 million tons. In raw form it contains negligible amounts of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sulfates and moisture, with Iron, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Chromium and Lead as trace elements. Salt from Khewra, also known as Himalayan salt, is red, pink, off-white or transparent. In the early years of British rule, the Khewra mine produced about 28,000 to 30,000 tons per annum; it increased to about 187,400 tons per annum for the five fiscal years ending 1946–7 and to 136,824 tons for the two years ending 1949–50 with the systematic working introduced by Dr H. Warth. The mine's output was reported in 2003 to be 385,000 tons of salt per annum, which amounts to almost half of Pakistan's total production of rock salt.At that rate of output, the tunnel would be expected to last for another 350 years.

The mine comprises nineteen stories, of which eleven are below ground. From the entrance, the mine extends about 2440 ft into the mountains, and the total length of its tunnels is about 40 km.Quarrying is done using the room and pillar method, mining only half of the salt and leaving the remaining half to support what is above. The temperature inside the mine remains about 18–20 °C throughout the year. A railway track laid during the British era is used to bring salt out of the mine in rail cars.

Himalayan salt is Pakistan's best known rock salt. It is used for cooking, as bath salt, as brine and as a raw material for many industries, including a soda ash plant set up by AkzoNobel in 1940.Salt from Khewra mine is also used to make decorative items like lamps, vases, ashtrays and statues,which are exported to the United States, India and many European countries. The use of rock salt to make artistic and decorative items started during the Mughal era, when many craftsman made tableware and decorations from it. Warth introduced the use of a lathe to cut out art pieces from the rock salt, as he found it similar to gypsum in physical characteristics.

In 2008 the Government of Pakistan decided to sell off seventeen profitable organizations including Khewra salt mines, but the plan was shelved. The mine is now operated by the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation, a government department.


Tourism

Khewra Salt Mine is a major tourist attraction, with around 250,000 visitors a year, earning it considerable revenue. Visitors are taken into the mine on a train.There are numerous pools of salty water inside. The Badshahi Mosque was built in the mining tunnels with multi-colored salt bricks about fifty years ago. Other artistic carvings in the mine include a replica of Minar-e-Pakistan, a statue of Allama Iqbal, an accumulation of crystals that form the name of Muhammad in Urdu script, a model of the Great Wall of China and another of the Mall Road of Murree. In 2003 two phases of development of tourist facilities and attractions were carried out, at a total cost of 9 million rupees. A clinical ward with 20 beds was established in 2007, costing 10 million rupees, for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases using salt therapy. The "Visit Pakistan Year 2007" event included a train safari visit of Khewra Salt Mine.In February 2011 Pakistan railways started operating special trains for tourists from Lahore and Rawalpindi to Khewra. For this purpose the railway station of Khewra was refurbished with the help of a private firm.

Other visitor attractions in the mine include the 75-meter-high Assembly Hall; Pul-Saraat, a salt bridge with no pillars over an 80-foot-deep brine pond; Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors), where salt crystals are light pink; and a cafe.


Other projects

The Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation established the Mine Survey Institute at Khewra in 1971.[6] The institute conducts mine surveys, organizes mining-related courses for the miners and has establishes the Khewra Model High School and the Khewra Women College. More recently the miners won an important environmental case against the mining company for the provision of unpolluted drinking water. The water available to the residents of Khewra had been polluted by salt, coal and other nearby mining activity. This case is internationally recognised as important with regard to the relationship between humanity and the environment.

In 2003, while the Government of Pakistan was looking for ways to increase the country's strategic store of oil to 90 days, the PMDC put forward a proposal to use the Khewra mines to store strategic oil reserves. Scientific reports confirmed the feasibility of this proposal, but it was turned down.














































 
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University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJKU)

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a university at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. It was established in 1980 and is currently ranked at No.14 in HEC ranking of General category universities in Pakistan.

The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-campus, multi-discipline university.The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has been making steady progress in both academic and administrative domains. During the 2005 earthquake, most of the buildings at the Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot campuses were destroyed, but new buildings equipped with modern facilities are now under construction, and new research programmes have already been launched.

Location

University has three campuses: Muzaffarabad, Rawalakot and Kotli.

Muzaffarabad is the capital of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. It is located in Muzaffarabad District on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers. The city is 138 kilometres from Rawalpindi and Islamabad and about 76 kilometres from Abbottabad. Cradled by lofty mountains, Muzaffarabad reflects a blend of various cultures and languages. The main language is a form of Hindko.

Rawalkot, the district headquarter, is situated in the heart of district Poonch. is one of the many beautiful valleys of Kashmir, located approximately 80 kilometers from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. During summer the place becomes full of the green grass and beautiful flowers including many varieties of roses.

Kotli, the District Headquarter, is at a distance of 141 kilometers from Rawalpindi /Islamabad. The Kotli campus has a well stocked air conditioned library in the premises of the faculty with a large collection of books on different subjects, reference books, magazines, periodicals, and Journals. The campus houses one of the largest and the most modern Computer Lab for students.

Faculties


Faculty of Adminstrative Sciences
Faculty of Agriculture Sciences
Faculty of Arts
Faculty of Sciences

Facilities and Resources


Information Services:

The Central Library is well stocked with books, journals and related materials and 31,000 online research journals. The University has now been linked to International Network for Scientific Publications (INASP), providing access to over 11,600 peer-reviewed full text online international academic journals and more than 20,000 abstracts from some of the world's top publishing houses. Attached with the central Library the “Kashmir Information Resource Centre” (KIRC) has a good collection of printed/electronic material on Kashmir.

Transport:

Since the University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir is a multi-campus university. It has its own arrangements for travel to the different campuses. Many buses are running on the roads between the campuses according to the schedule fixed from time to time by the Transport Committee.

Club & Societies:

University has numerous clubs and societies promoting extra-curricular activities. Some of them are: Students council literary, Debating society, Culture Dramatic and Environment Society, Media club, Adventure Club, Art and Design Society and sports Society.






















 
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Gurudwara Janam Asthan Nankana Sahib

Gurdwara Janam Asthan is a prominent gurdwara in Sikhism, built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the 19th century to mark the birthplace of the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak Dev. It is situated on the site of his parental home in Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Nankana Sahib is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is named after the first guru of the Sikhs, Nanak, the other figure in Sikhism apart from Kabir who was born here, so it is a city of high historic and religious value and is a popular pilgrimage site for Sikhs from all over the world. It is located about 80 kilometers south west of Lahore and about 75 kilometres east of Faisalabad.

History

Previously the township was known as Rai-Bhoi-Di-Talwandi and was renamed after the birth of Nanak Dev. The Janam Asthan Gurdwara Nankana Sahib, originally constructed in around 1600 CE was renovated in the years 1819–20 CE by Gian-Punjab Maharaja Jassa Singh Ramgarhia The Sikh Conference of Panjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Peshawar, Kangra and Hazara.

During the Akali movement, on 20 February 1921, Narain Das, the Udasi mahant (clergy) of the gurdwara at Nankana Sahib, ordered his men to fire on Akali protesters, leading to the Nankana massacre. The firing was widely condemned, and an agitation was launched until the control of this historic Janam Asthan Gurdwara was restored to the Sikhs.Again in the 1930s and 40's the Sikhs added more buildings and more architectural design.

The area around Nankana Sahib was formerly a tehsil of Sheikhupura District. In May 2005, the provincial government decided to raise the status of Nankana Sahib to that of a district as a way of promoting development in the area.

The development of Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak Dev in Pakistan is one of the numerous projects by Punjab Government. The work of development of Nankana Sahib Resort to host and entertain local and international visitors is almost complete. According to reports, there are plans to construct a 100 Acre University as well as hospitals and health care facilities by the descendents of Rai Bular.

In 2007, the Pakistan government announced a plan to set up a university on Sikh religion and culture at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Guru Nanak. "The international Guru Nanak University planned at Nankana Sahib would have the best architecture, curricula and research centre on Sikh religion and culture", Chairman of Pakistan's Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB), Gen (Retd) Zulfikar Ali Khan, said.



























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University of the Punjab,Lahore. (PU)

The University of the Punjab (informally Punjab University or PU) is a public sector university primarily located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The university is the oldest and largest in Pakistan, having been formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its Senate in October 1882 at Simla. It was also the fourth university to be established by the British colonial authorities on the Indian subcontinent (the first three universities were established in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras).

Punjab University comprises five campuses including the Quaid-i-Azam Campus and Allama Iqbal Campus, both of which are located in Lahore, with additional sites in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Khanspur. It is organised into 13 faculties within which there are 71 academic departments, research centres and institutes. The university has 30,608 full-time students and 1,006 academic and research staff.

Punjab University was ranked 1st amongst large-sized multi-faculty universities by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan in 2012.There are also two Nobel Laureates amongst the university's alumni and former staff.


History

The University of the Punjab came into existence as a result of a long drawn struggle of the people of Punjab after the Indian Mutiny in 1857.[4] Prof Dr GW Leitner was the founder of the university. Contrary to the three previously established universities, which were only examining institutions, the University of the Punjab was both teaching as well as examining body right from beginning.

From its formation in 1882 until 1947, the University of the Punjab served the educational needs of the entire region of pre-partition Punjab and northern India. Mohindra College, Patiala was the first college of higher learning to affiliate with University of Punjab in 1882; followed by St. Stephen's College, Delhi. The partition of India in 1947 reduced the geographical jurisdiction of the university. The current Institute of Administrative Sciences was created in 1962.

Many major institutions that were previously affiliated to Punjab University have now become independent universities on their own, such as Government College University, Lahore and Medical and Engineering Colleges.


Campus

The University of the Punjab is divided into several campuses across Punjab with one summer campus located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa:
Allama Iqbal Campus: also known as the old campus, located in the centre of Lahore, it is named after the great South Asian thinker and mystic poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal. The campus houses the Senate as well as other administrative elements of the university.
Quaid-i-Azam Campus: also known as the new campus, it is named after the founder of Pakistan and is located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to the south of the Allama Iqbal Campus. Spread over an area of 1,700 acres (7 km2) of lush green landscape this campus is the centre of academic and administrative activities of the university. A canal divides the academic blocks from the student lodgings.
Gujranwala Campus: the faculties of Commerce, Economics and Management Sciences, Law and Science all conduct teaching in the campus.
Khanspur Campus: the summer campus is located at a height of about 7,000 ft (2,100 m) in the Himalayan range near Ayubia. This campus, in addition to providing research facilities, is also used as a recreational center for the faculty and the students.
Jhelum Campus: having recently opened in 2012, it offers studies relating to the faculties of Commerce, Economics and Management Sciences, Law and Science.


Faculties

There are 14 faculties in the University with 10 constituent colleges, 71 departments, centres, and institutes. It has about 739 permanent faculty members involved in teaching/research.

Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences
Faculty of Commerce
Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences
Faculty of Education
Faculty of Engineering & Technology
Faculty of Islamic Studies
Faculty of Law
Faculty of Life-Sciences
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
Faculty of Oriental Learning
Faculty of Pharmacy
Faculty of Science
Faculty of Business


Research and collaborations
The University is working alongside/collaborating with others globally and has articulation agreements with International Universities.

Notable alumni

A number of key people from various disciplines of life have studied at the university. The university has produced two Nobel Laureates namely Har Gobind Khorana and Dr. Abdus Salam. Other famous personalities include Ex Prime Minister of Pakistan Yusuf Raza Gillani, political activist Javed Hashmi, news anchor Hamid Mir, nuclear physicist Ishfaq Ahmed and Choudhry Rahmat Ali.
























Dr. Alfred Cooper Woolner (May 1878 - 7 January 1936) was a noted Sanskrit scholar and professor as well as the Vice Chancellor of Punjab University, Lahore before Partition of India.
Punjab University's collection of over 8,500 Ancient Sanskrit and Hindi manuscripts is named in his honour.



 
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Sugarcane juice (National Drink of Pakistan)

The national juice of Pakistan is sugarcane juice. Every country is laced with own national juice though the citizen whether prefer to drink or not but there happens to be a national juice of each country in the world. Sugarcane juice is Pakistan’s national juice made of sugarcane. It is much tasty and appears to be mouthwatering.

When served chilled, it appeals a lot.

Sugarcane juice is called ‘raw’ locally. Pakistan is an agricultural country and grows good quantity of sugarcane. It has the bigger sugar industry as well. Thus sugarcane juice is quite popular and is available throughout the year.


Sugarcane juice is the juice extracted from pressed sugarcane. It is consumed as a beverage worldwide, and especially in regions where sugarcane is commercially grown such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Brazil.

Evaporated cane juice is a loosely defined term which can include combinations of sugars including glucose, and fructose. It is less processed than bleached white sugar.Nutritional benefits are minimal; evaporated cane juice contains trace minerals and vitamins but has the same amount of calories as table sugar and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration defines evaporated cane juice as any sweetener derived from sugar cane syrup.


Sugar cane juice is the national drink of Pakistan, where it is called "Raw" and more commonly referred to as "gunney ka rus". It is sold by roadside vendors, where the juice is squeezed fresh when ordered. It is sold in glasses with or without ice.Very often a hint of ginger and lemon is also added, along with optional salt or pepper.







 

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