January 12, 1948 US Supreme Court: Sipuel v Oklahoma State Bd of Regents, wherein the court moved cautiously toward outlawing segregation in education. ( Plessy v Ferguson: separate but equal, and finally... this day: May 17, 1954 Brown v Topeka Bd of Ed based on equal protection 14th Amendment. Two major events in education on the 1950s: a) 1954 Brown decision of the Supreme Court, and b) Sputnik in 1957. Both events drew Washington deeper into education. The concept of local control was endangered. a. The fear that American had an educational quality problem was highlighted in the 1958 Rockefeller Fund report, spearheaded by John W. Gardner The Pursuit of Excellence. b. 1959, James P. Conant, The American High School, urged comprehensive high schools with tracks for college prep, vocational, etc. The philosophical war rages between devotees of progressive education i.e. John Dewey and William Heard Kilpatrick versus essentialists such as Robert Maynard Hutchins (he encouraged liberal education based on the study of the great books of the Western tradition,), Mortimer Smith and Arthur Bestor (neotraditionalist, Educational Wastelands (1953) was his manifesto about declining educational standards). a. Bestor: US schools lacked serious content and rigor and neglected the core disciplines. b. Without school choice and voucers, parents have no vote on the matter.