From what I learned about the Iraqi Sanctions, this approach still hurts the people used as collective collateral damage for political pressure. (The Iraqi Sanctions were so devastating, the losses of life were worse than the war. 5000 infants and children were reported dying per month from Sanctions, though this number was underreported because infants were harder to verify and count. Source for this was the Iraqi Notebook, Houston Peace News, that compiled reports from other sources) To prevent from having to resort to such extreme measures that harm the very people intended to defend, what countries need to do when their population grows this diverse in political groupings is form coalitions similar to the Congress having reps from STATES but have reps from PARTIES. The same way we don't need states fighting each other, we don't need parties causing civil wars. So why not have a union of sovereign parties governing their own members the way we recognize sovereign states under a unified national govt at the same time? Then these parties can have facilitation and assistance with conflict resolution so these groups can address and mediate conflicts, either agreeing to resolve or to separate on issues they cannot settle otherwise. If we have such structures in place, then BEFORE conflict escalates into coercion, abuse and war, then additional help can be brought in to consult with the reps that are established already and try to salvage the diplomatic process BEFORE it escalates beyond the point of no return. This would preserve their leadership without threat, by MEDIATION which protects the rights and interests of parties in representing and forming their own solution. NOT IMPOSING by one group over others, or by outside influence or coercion. But we'd have to set up a recognized party representation BEFORE that, not wait until it goes too far, and then scramble to find which people or parties represent which groups. Under pressure, that process never works but people compromise for expedience and don't find the right leaders who could have untangled the messes. America could also use our current party system to set up reps per District by party to participate in conflict resolution and proposing position statements to Congress. Why wait until elections to fight it out. Why not have a regular process for redressing grievances and solving conflicts directly between opposing factions and parties we already know exist?