please dont harm victims

Discussion in 'Religion and Ethics' started by Truthmatters, Jul 16, 2012.

  1. Truthmatters
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    Child sexual abuse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



    Disclosure

    Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support.[88][89] In general, studies have found that children need support and stress-reducing resources after disclosure of sexual abuse.[90][91] Negative social reactions to disclosure have been found to be harmful to the survivor’s well being.[92] One study reported that children who received a bad reaction from the first person they told, especially if the person was a close family member, had worse scores as adults on general trauma symptoms, post traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and dissociation.[93] Another study found that in most cases when children did disclose abuse, the person they talked to did not respond effectively, blamed or rejected the child, and took little or no action to stop the abuse.[91] Non-validating and otherwise non-supportive responses to disclosure by the child's primary attachment figure may indicate a relational disturbance predating the sexual abuse that may have been a risk factor for the abuse, and which can remain a risk factor for its psychological consequences. [94]

    The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry provides guidelines for what to say to the victim and what to do following the disclosure.[95] Asa Don Brown has indicated: "A minimization of the trauma and its effects is commonly injected into the picture by parental caregivers to shelter and calm the child. It has been commonly assumed that focusing on children’s issues too long will negatively impact their recovery. Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues."[96
     
  2. Truthmatters
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    If you ever are told by someone that they were abused by someone please be compassionate
     
  3. CrusaderFrank
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    CrusaderFrank Diamond Member

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    Um, ok.

    Thank you
     
  4. Truthmatters
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    someone deleted the thread I was going to put this in.

    the direction of the thread was likely the reason it was deleted.

    there are people here who desperately need this information by the nature of there responses to that deleted thread
     
  5. Dr.House
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    Dr.House Lives on in syndication!

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    Additionally, don't automatically assume someone is guilty...

    Discover the facts in any allegation...
     
    • Thank You! Thank You! x 1
  6. California Girl
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    Unless the accused is a Republican, right? Then it's ok to presume guilt, huh?
     
  7. Truthmatters
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    Effects

    Psychological harm

    Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.[9][22] Psychological, emotional, physical, and social effects include depression,[5][23][24] post-traumatic stress disorder,[6][25] anxiety,[7] eating disorders, poor self-esteem, dissociative and anxiety disorders; general psychological distress and disorders such as somatization, neurosis, chronic pain,[24] sexualized behavior,[26] school/learning problems; and behavior problems including substance abuse,[27][28] self-destructive behaviour, animal cruelty,[29][30][31] crime in adulthood and suicide.[12][32][33][34][35][36] A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has not been identified[37] and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations.[5][38][39]





    A study funded by the USA National Institute of Drug Abuse found that "Among more than 1,400 adult females, childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased likelihood of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, and psychiatric disorders. The associations are expressed as odds ratios: for example, women who experienced nongenital sexual abuse in childhood were 2.83 times more likely to suffer drug dependence as adults than were women who were not abused."[28]
    Long term negative effects on development leading to repeated or additional victimization in adulthood are also associated with child sexual abuse.[8][27] Studies have established a causal relationship between childhood sexual abuse and certain specific areas of adult psychopathology, including suicidality, antisocial behavior, PTSD, anxiety and alcoholism.[40] Adults with a history of abuse as a child, especially sexual abuse, are more likely than people with no history of abuse to become frequent users of emergency and medical care services.[24] A study comparing middle-aged women who were abused as children with non-abused counterparts found significantly higher health care costs for the former.[41]

    Sexually abused children suffer from more psychological symptoms than children who have not been abused; studies have found symptoms in 51% to 79% of sexually abused children.[34][42][43][44][45] The risk of harm is greater if the abuser is a relative, if the abuse involves intercourse or attempted intercourse, or if threats or force are used.[46] The level of harm may also be affected by various factors such as penetration, duration and frequency of abuse, and use of force.[9][22][47][48] The social stigma of child sexual abuse may compound the psychological harm to children,[48][49] and adverse outcomes are less likely for abused children who have supportive family environments.[50][51]

    Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    Main articles: Dissociation (psychology) and Posttraumatic stress disorder

    Child abuse, including sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.[52] The level of dissociation has been found to be related to reported overwhelming sexual and physical abuse.[53] When severe sexual abuse (penetration, several perpetrators, lasting more than one year) had occurred, dissociative symptoms were even more prominent.[53]

    Child sexual abuse independently predicts the number of symptoms for PTSD a person displays, after controlling for possible confounding variables, according to Widom (1999), who wrote "sexual abuse, perhaps more than other forms of childhood trauma, leads to dissociative problems ... these PTSD findings represent only part of the picture of the long-term psychiatric sequelae associated with early childhood victimization ... antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse, and other forms of psychopathology."[6] Children may develop symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder resulting from child sexual abuse, even without actual or threatened injury or violence.[54]

    Research factors

    Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse,[55] some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse.[22][38][56][57] In a 1998 review of related literature, Martin and Fleming state "The hypothesis advanced in this paper is that, in most cases, the fundamental damage inflicted by child sexual abuse is due to the child's developing capacities for trust, intimacy, agency and sexuality, and that many of the mental health problems of adult life associated with histories of child sexual abuse are second-order effects."[58] Other studies have found an independent association of child sexual abuse with adverse psychological outcomes.[7][22][38]

    Kendler et al. (2000) found that most of the relationship between severe forms of child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology in their sample could not be explained by family discord, because the effect size of this association decreased only slightly after they controlled for possible confounding variables. Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins.[38]

    A 1998 meta-analysis by Rind et al. generated controversy by suggesting that child sexual abuse does not always cause pervasive harm, that some college students reported such encounters as positive experiences and that the extent of psychological damage depends on whether or not the child described the encounter as "consensual."[59] The study was criticized for flawed methodology and conclusions.[60][61] The US Congress condemned the study for its conclusions and for providing material used by pedophile organizations to justify their activities.[62]

    Physical harm

    Injury

    Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding. In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death.[63] Herman-Giddens et al. found six certain and six probable cases of death due to child sexual abuse in North Carolina between 1985 and 1994. The victims ranged in age from 2 months to 10 years. Causes of death included trauma to the genitalia or rectum and sexual mutilation.[64]

    Infections

    Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases.[65] Depending on the age of the child, due to a lack of sufficient vaginal fluid, chances of infections are higher. Vaginitis has also been reported.[65]

    Neurological damage

    Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development.[66][67] Various studies have suggested that severe child sexual abuse may have a deleterious effect on brain development. Ito et al. (1998) found "reversed hemispheric asymmetry and greater left hemisphere coherence in abused subjects;"[68] Teicher et al. (1993) found that an increased likelihood of "ictal temporal lobe epilepsy-like symptoms" in abused subjects;[69] Anderson et al. (2002) recorded abnormal transverse relaxation time in the cerebellar vermis of adults sexually abused in childhood;[70] Teicher et al. (1993) found that child sexual abuse was associated with a reduced corpus callosum area; various studies have found an association of reduced volume of the left hippocampus with child sexual abuse;[71] and Ito et al. (1993) found increased electrophysiological abnormalities in sexually abused children.[72]

    Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system.[71] Teicher et al. (1993)[69] used the "Limbic System Checklist-33" to measure ictal temporal lobe epilepsy-like symptoms in 253 adults. Reports of child sexual abuse were associated with a 49% increase to LSCL-33 scores, 11% higher than the associated increase of self-reported physical abuse. Reports of both physical and sexual abuse were associated with a 113% increase. Male and female victims were similarly affected.[69][73]

    Navalta et al. (2006) found that the self-reported math Scholastic Aptitude Test scores of their sample of women with a history of repeated child sexual abuse were significantly lower than the self-reported math SAT scores of their non-abused sample. Because the abused subjects verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration." They also found a strong association between short term memory impairments for all categories tested (verbal, visual, and global) and the duration of the abuse.[74]




    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_molesting#Disclosure
     
    Last edited: Jul 16, 2012
  8. Rat in the Hat
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    The thread wasn't deleted, Goofy.
     
  9. CrusaderFrank
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    CrusaderFrank Diamond Member

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    Countdown to TM linking this to Zimmerman and Dying Republican Party Put the knife Down

    10, 9, 8
     
  10. High_Gravity
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    High_Gravity Belligerent Drunk Supporting Member

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    What in the fuck?
     

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