Most recent "A" paper! Yes, in all it's glory...

Discussion in 'Education' started by AllieBaba, Sep 21, 2010.

  1. AllieBaba
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    Took me about an hour or two to write it. 10 out of 10 points.

    Imagine if I actually spent some time on these things, and went through and really edited them and tightened them up!

    "Human Service Manager Exercise – ‘Reinforce, Refer, and Release’
    Interviewing and communication skills that are used on human service clients can also be used by human service managers upon their staff. This can occur when a manager needs to evaluate a staff member, assess a situation involving a staff person, or help that staff person to grow - or leave employment. Human conditions are universal regardless of whether one is dealing with clients or staff members (employees) and so the same sort of techniques and strategies work across the board, and can be used effectively on co-workers and staff as well as clients.
    Reinforce, Refer and Release
    Following are recommendations and strategies for three case study situations. Each subject will be evaluated and a recommendation to reinforce, refer or release will be made. Additionally, an explanation will be provided which explains the appropriateness of the recommendation and what strategies were applied.
    1. Reinforce – includes additional supervisory support, staff development and increased responsibilities.
    2. Refer – includes supervisory support and monitoring, re-training, a corrective plan of assistance, and/or a referral for outside assistance.
    3. Release – includes legal and ethical considerations, instituting a corrective plan of assistance, possible probation, or termination.
    Scenario #1
    Family Support Services Center Staff Member: Tom Martin.
    Demographics - Age: 32, male, divorced, Caucasian, with the agency four years.
    Staff Member History and Current Assessment – Mr. Martin is employed as an individual counselor for adult clients. He’s considered an adequate but not outstanding counselor. There have been two previous client complaints that could not be substantiated, but a review of Tom’s previous case files shows four female clients who terminated counseling with no explanation.
    A female client of Tom has informed supervisor that he had made inappropriate sexual comments, bought her presents, had one out-of-office ‘date’, and implied that he could help get custody of her children back from protective service with a favorable treatment report.
    a. Tom initially denied these accusations when they were presented to him but does admit that he is attracted to client.
    Gathering information from a person who doesn’t want to reveal any information about himself or has denied there is any problem can be problematic. “The gathering of information is considerably harder; the patient doesn't perceive a problem (at the conscious level) so will be less forthcoming” (Russell, 1994, n.p.). But the charges are serious and have legal and ethical repercussions, so whether Mr. Martin wants to discuss it or not, some action must be taken.
    While sexual attractions do occur in the intimacy of the clinical relationship, according to Murphy & Dillon (2003), sexual interaction between client and clinician is strictly forbidden by the ethical codes of all of the helping professions, and it is a criminal offense in a number of states (p. 267). Therefore it is necessary to immediately remove Mr. Martin (release) from the situation until a determination is made.
    Strategies for determination of whether release should be the final and only action taken should include interviews of clients and Mr. Martin. There may be legal proceedings, in which case Mr. Martin should continue only in a limited capacity (if at all) until such time as a legal determination is made. Mr. Martin should also be referred to appropriate counseling, or at least given the opportunity to obtain such counseling. There may be a degree of oversight involved, if he is to continue working, where he must agree to having his cases reviewed and perhaps only seeing male clients until such time as a determination is made regarding the veracity of the charge.
    Scenario #2
    Family Support Services Center Staff Member: Janice Wellington

    Demographics – Ms. Wellington is 28, female, single, Hispanic and has been with the agency for an unknown number of years.
    Staff Member History and Current Assessment – Ms. Wellington is a child and family counselor. She displays good therapeutic skills and is well liked by her clients. Her client case logs are not always complete or submitted timely. She states that she doesn’t feel confident and knowledgeable with some of the situations she is exposed to, and has said she is more comfortable working with children instead of with entire families during counseling sessions.
    Reinforcement would be appropriate with this client, as it appears she suffers from a lack of confidence. Strategies could include creating a work calendar that will provide her with time to complete her paperwork each day, providing her with lots of positive feedback to build her confidence.
    Focused awareness interview technique could be appropriate for Ms. Wellington.
    According to Jack (1999), it requires a focused awareness that involves attending as closely to the speaker's words as possible, taking none of her meanings for granted, and asking her to explain key words or phrases (n.p.). Jack goes on to say that this process helps avoid the mistake of lazy listening, where one simply appropriates what a woman is saying to my existing ideas or to existing theories (1999, n.p.). This would be appropriate to use when interviewing Ms. Wellington, as she may inadvertently provide the key to why she feels inadequate with adult clients and families, when they seem to be impressed by her.
    If she is interested in continuing with families but simply doesn’t feel confident, arrange a time frame for her to continue with some support, then re-evaluate at the end of six months.
    Scenario 3
    Family Support Services Center: Michael Thompson.
    Demographics – Mr. Thompson is 44, male, married, African American and has been with the agency 16 years.
    Staff member history and current assessment – Mr. Thompson is employed as a substance abuse counselor. He is a recovering addict with 18 years of sobriety. He states he is under a lot of stress at home and concerning financial obligations. He has a good work record except for periods of repeated absence from work and periods of depression. He is suffering doubts about his ability to relate to clients’ addiction issues. Co-workers are concerned and suspicious that Michael has relapsed or is contemplating drug use. The agency has an Employee Assistance Program and Policy.
    The recommendation for this situation depends upon the drug policies of the employer. It is likely that Mr. Thompson signed an agreement that he would not use during his employment, since he is working in addictions and this is often required from addiction counselors. In this case, an appropriate recommendation would be that Mr.Thompson be referred to appropriate professionals and support networks to help him work through this difficult time. His manager should have an interview with him in which she presents him with the concerns of his co-workers, and give him a chance to respond. At this same interview, he should be referred to the employee assistance program and policy, It would also be appropriate to reinforce his behavior of continuing to work despite his depression and stress issues, by acknowledging that his stressors are indeed valid, and praising the fact that he is continuing to work.
    Self Disclosure
    For the first two scenarios, there is no real indication that self-disclosure is needed except on the most basic level. If a manager specializes or has some particular skill or training in sexual harassment, it might be appropriate to disclose that to Mr. Martin; likewise if a manager has also felt the intimidation and uncertainty of Ms. Wellington, it could be appropriate to share that.
    More self disclosure could be justified for the third scenario, where you have a long-term employee who is teetering on the edge of relapse (or may have already). Addictions counseling works largely through sharing; counselors and professionals in the field are often recovering addicts themselves. The nature of addictions counseling is to get everything in the open and face it, to admit to the problem and own it. So an addictions counselor who is having issues not only should be anticipated and planned for in the company policy, but it should be dealt with on a very personal level to provide the best chance of salvaging a career.
    It is appropriate in this case to share with a recovering addict one’s own struggles with similar issues that can interfere with work, to a certain extent. Such self-disclosure should be carefully mitred so interviews are not about the manager, so it would be best to plan out an interview strategy and topics before embarking upon it.
    Tasks of Endings and Transitions
    Since all three scenarios have the potential of ending in termination of employment (not necessarily a “fault” termination, in the case of 2 and 3) it is appropriate to consider tasks of endings and transitions. There are seven tasks of endings and transitions, according to Murphy & Dillon (2003), which can help clinician and client (or manager and staff) to navigate the end of a relationship (p.282).
    For Mr. Martin, announcing the process (“Now we are ending) is appropriate. At first it might be “now your job description is changing until we have address the legal side of this situation.” But there is no time to ease into this situation, it’s a situation that must be addressed quickly and in a straight-forward manner, to protect the clients, to protect Mr. Martin from egregious allegations, and to protect the company.
    Ms. Wellington would be an appropriate person to ask “Where were you when we began?” at the end of her evaluation period of 6 months, or upon her decision to move to a different field. A discussion of goals and accomplishments could help her to gain confidence in her abilities, or at least bring a certain amount of pleasure to her, upon her final decision regarding her profession.
    Mr. Thompson is an appropriate candidate for foreshadowing the future: “Where are you heading?” This requires the client and manager to review potential pitfalls and challenges he might face in the future, whether he remains with the company or not. It is a good tool with which to determine a course of action and identify future stressors, as well as provide the staff member with a framework to support and maintain growth.
    Conclusion
    People at work have the same issues as people who come in for clinical assessment and treatment. That is why it is logical that human services managers can use the same strategies and face the same issues in their staff members as clinicians do in their clients. In many ways the manager/staffer relationship is much like the clinician/client relationship, with one person holding a certain amount of power, and the other trying to navigate through different issues, either personal or professional.
    In addition, human service workers work with intense caseloads. They often do so because they relate and empathize with the population they serve; and if they do, it is reasonable to suppose they may have many of the same issues – either on their own, or through repeated and prolonged contact with the fallout of those issues. And these issues will come to work with them and affect their work, which in turn will result in management seeking answers, and subsequently, employing the interview techniques which are also used on clients.











    References

    Jack, D. (1999). Ways of listening to depressed women in qualitative research: Interview
    techniques and analyses. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 40(2), 91-101.
    doi:10.1037/h0086829
    Murphy, B. C., & Dillon, C., (2003). Interviewing in action: Relationship, process, and change.
    (2nd ed). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Russell, W. (1994). The Homeopathic Interview. Journal of the American Institute of
    Homeopathy, 87(4), 228. Retrieved from Alt HealthWatch database."
     
    • Thank You! Thank You! x 1
  2. AllieBaba
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    I turned in a paper on Existentialism and Humanistic Theories yesterday. I spent two hours on it...

    Existentialism and Humanistic Theories
    Existentialism and humanistic theories consider the human condition as it pertains to psychology, life, and personality. Existentialism makes the assumption that conflict and anxiety are universal to all humans. Humanistic theory suggests that humans are complete to themselves, despite outer conflict, and given the right, positive support are equal to any situation.
    Existential Theories
    Existentialism concerns itself with the inner being, in a way that, instead of focusing on past events and experiences, moves the focus to the present, and the person in the present. It allows that all people live in the now, and now is full of conflict and strife which each of us must work through. Existentialists do not agree on a basic view of human nature, but instead “focus on the essence of existence – the phenomena that are inherent in nature in being alive” (Parrott, p. 152).
    As such, it is a rather fuzzy view – with no agreement of the nature of humans, no accepted structural framework to the application of existentialism, it is considered all things at once…religious, atheistic, even anti-religious. “It emphasizes hope and optimism as well as despair and nothingness” (Parrott, p. 152). At the same time, some themes run through existentialism.
    For example, the focus on the essence of existence is a universal byproduct of existentialism. Existentialists see experience as the primary universal experience of mankind. We all are affected by experiences both outside of our control – but we all have the opportunity to determine how we will deal with those experiences.
    Existentialism is at its core a philosophy of self-reliance and freedom. We have the freedom to make good decisions and lead productive lives – but if we make bad decisions and our lives fall apart, we are responsible for our actions and must bear the whole responsibility. After all, all humans suffer and are subjected to random, negative occurrences. What makes us different is the way we live with and grow through these negative impacts – with freedom comes responsibility, and while everyone suffers, likewise everybody has the opportunity to excel and rise above the fray.
    At the same time, despite these universal truths (that we all suffer) existentialists acknowledge no guidelines by which we can live. All decisions must come from within each of us, and are dependent upon our experiences and our interpretation of our experiences. Existentialists believe that only when people learn to make decisions and live with the fallout from these decisions are they truly “free”.
    According to Parrott (2003), the existential therapist believes that “if we fail to live in a state of awareness of our being, even at the risk of anxiety, we will invariably collapse into maladaptive behavior” (p. 156). In other words, people who spend too much time looking forward or looking back will miss what is going on around them, and fail to adequately adapt or pursue a positive course. If a person is focused entirely on past trauma, say, from his childhood, at the expense of focusing on the upbringing of his children, for example, he can potentially slip into an abnormal relationship with his children, for example. The failure to focus on the here and now can result in a tangled knot of missed opportunities, inappropriate decisions, and poisoned relationships which become a self-perpetuating mess of dysfunction. Existentialists see the importance of focusing first on the current situation, making decisions which are appropriate for where the person is currently, so that even if there are other issues in the past, or conflict predicted for the future, at least here and now, a person can make an appropriate decision and enjoy the freedom that is inherent in living one’s life in the present, and owning one’s choices, be they good or bad ones.
    Existentialism is not well known for having a wealth of theories. It is by definition almost without definition, and therefore can be applied and used in a multitude of ways. Existential therapists tend to work to bring clients to a confrontation of life issues. Some use a technique called “focusing” and some employ “logotherapy” .
    Focusing encourages the client to “focus” on the way they feel regarding the outcome of a decision. The client focuses on a particular problem and considers the way he “feels”. The client then uses that feeling to guide him in his therapy, rather than depending upon the therapist to dictate to him whether he is right or wrong in his decisions.
    Logotherapy allows clients to experience healing through meaning. The intent is to help people find meaning in their lives. Logotherapy is broken down into three approaches – paradoxical intention, dereflection, and modification of attitudes.
    Paradoxical intention requires clients to act against their anticipation of fear. Clients are encouraged to aggressively tackle their fear – a good example would be that a person who blushes when they speak publicly (Parrott, 2003, p. 163) would be encouraged to try to make themselves blush intentionally.
    Dereflection is used to treat excessive self-observation or obsession. The premise allows that clients who cannot find meaning in life move away from their compelling, negative thoughts and towards something more positive and pleasant.


    Humanistic Theory
    The humanistic approach developed out of a frustration with theories which did not take into account the free will, dignity, or cognitive processes of humans. Using client- or person-centered counseling, the humanistic approach recognizes the innate value of each individual and encourages each individual to reach within himself to find the will to live a productive and positive life.
    Humanistic theory proposes that humans are at the center of their own experience – that how the client sees himself is more important than the reality itself. “External reality can be known only through the inner reality of personal experience (Jones & Butman, 1991)” (Parrott, 2003, p. 177). This view acknowledges that reality may be different to different people, rather than accept that all conflict and strife is universal to all (as existentialism does).
    Person-centered therapy maintains an optimistic view of human nature. People are viewed as intrinsically good and trustworthy, though potentially influenced by experiences outside their realm of control. The humanistic theory puts forth the concept that humans want to grow in a positive way, and will seek to fully realize their potential, regardless of whether or not they are subjected to negative influences.
    Methods and techniques employed by humanistic therapists include congruence, unconditional positive regard, and accurate empathetic understanding. The father of modern humanistic theory, Carl Ransom Rogers, believed that these were “interrelated and that when all were fully present, people became fully-functioning, showing optimal maturity and adjustment” (Parrott, 2003, p. 184).
    According to Rogers, when a therapist is genuine and transparent, a state of “realness” is achieved, and this is what constitutes “congruence”. For congruence to happen, the therapist must be open to the experience of the session, and behave in a manner which is true to himself. The therapist does not create a false façade for the benefit of the client, or retreat into ambiguity and defensiveness. Instead, the therapist is open and honest, and therefore the client can more fully trust him, as he knows what the therapist is thinking (provided of course the therapist knows what he is thinking, and voices that knowledge).
    Unconditional positive regard refers to the acceptance of a client by his or her therapist. It can be viewed as love, as it serves the same purpose. In person-centered therapy, a client’s worth is not dependent upon his behavior or actions – therefore, the therapist employs unconditional positive regard in a way that allows clients to experience non-conditional acceptance (and love). It allows clients to feel valued, and to experience acceptance which many may never have experienced before.
    Empathy is acknowledged by almost all practitioners as vital to counseling. While it may be impossible for a clinician to always know exactly how their clients feel, it is important that they have the capacity to see the world from behind their clients’ eyes, and get a feeling for the motives and feelings of clients.
    Conclusion
    Existential and humanistic theories both have their place in therapy and in the history of the development of psychotherapy. While there are few pure existentialist therapists today, the development of the theory was key in allowing therapists to develop a more holistic approach to the human condition. Rather than focusing entirely on patients’ pasts, existentialism allowed therapists and philosophers to consider the present when considering human behavior, and subsequently provided them with more tools and approaches to better serve clients.
    The humanistic approach is still very popular today. The combination of acknowledging that which is good in all humans with an open approach by therapists seems to strike a chord with most people, who could potentially mistrust and not open up to a more Freudian therapist, with their contrived responses and manipulative demeanor.
    Taken together, existentialism and humanistic theories provide clinicians with a variety of approaches and tools to use in order to help their clients.




    References
    Parrott, III, L. (2003). Counseling and psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA:
    Brooks/Cole,Thomson Learning.

    Yes, I know, only one reference. There wasn't any directive to provide more, though I could have. If I actually cared. I'll probably lose a point for that.
     
  3. xotoxi
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    xotoxi Platinum Member

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    I'm not interested in reading it...but congrats on the "A"!
     
  4. AllieBaba
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    I'm not very interested either, which is why I only spend the least amount of time I can on them.

    I'd hate to risk actually remembering all that garbage.
     
  5. Madeline
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    Are you taking Philosophy, Allie? I liked that class....
     
  6. AllieBaba
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    No, that class was an interviewing class. The class I'm taking now is a psych class but I can't remember what it's called...oh, Models of Effective Helping.

    The previous one was Interviewing for Human Service Managers. Or something like that.

    I'm going for a BSHS....Bachelor of Science in Human Services Management.

    Though I like to call it a degree in BS. I would be able to test out of every class, if it's true BS....and you know, it almost is.
     
  7. AllieBaba
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    My niece is a medical dr....she has a masters in philosophy.
     
  8. Madeline
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    Ah well, school is school, Allie. Enjoy...and congrats on the excellent grade.
     
  9. strollingbones
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    congrads and no i am not reading it
     
  10. AllieBaba
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    I need to add emoticons, obviously!
     

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