More Strong Evidence for Evolution: Anatomical Vestiges

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by abu afak, Jun 28, 2015.

  1. Confounding
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    Confounding BANNED

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    Do you have any evidence that people were zapped into existence from nothing? Do you really think magic is real? You believe in the Garden of Eden? Noah's Ark? Do you believe somebody actually walked on water? How much of the Bible do you take literally?

    YOU ARE A GROWN MAN THAT BELIEVES IN FAIRY TALES!


    I'd make fun of you more but I actually feel bad for you.
     
  2. RetiredGySgt
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    RetiredGySgt Diamond Member

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    And as I repeated several times you can not actually provide any proof.
     
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  3. Fort Fun Indiana
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    Fort Fun Indiana Gold Member

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    And you sound dumber every time you say it. For one, any child who can read can provide proof. For two, the fa t that you are too proudly ignorant to look it up yourself shows people they should not waste their time.
     
  4. abu afak
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    abu afak ALLAH SNACKBAR!

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    Long-Lost Horse Toes Found
    A new study reveals modern horses retain vestiges of all five ancestral toes
    By Brian Switek - March 21, 2018 - Scientific American
    Long-Lost Horse Toes Found

    Horses are on point. This is literally true. From asses to zebras, all living horses stand on a single toe - the equivalent of our third digits of our hands and feet.

    The singular nature of horse legs has made equids evolutionary favorites. Their fossil record is so extensively known that for over a century they have been icons of transcendent change, a tangle of petrified skeletons stretching back over 50 million years documenting how tiny, forest-dwelling species like Eohippus scampered around on multiple toes until life on hard, grass-covered plains nudged horses towards their more familiar modern forms.

    Modern horses carry some signs of these changes. Now and then a horse is born with vestigial side toes, demonstrating that the genetic and developmental framework for those additional digits still exists. And even in horses with the expected single hoof, the front legs still bear two tapered bones on the side of the primary column of the feet - split bones - that are remainders of ancient, additional toes.

    This is textbook stuff, an easily-accessible demonstration of how every organism is a mix of the old and new. But we’ve apparently been missing other clues wrapped in equine flesh. Horses don’t just have parts of three toes. They retain signs of the standard mammalian complement of five digits.

    Anatomist Nikos Solounias and colleagues found the long lost piggies. It wasn’t as simple as just taking another look at a modern horse. Evolutionary context was needed, earlier horses such as the four-toed Eohippus, three-toed Mesohippus, and single-toed Dinohippusproviding background and fetal horse specimens allowing insights into development. In the end, the researchers not only found the “missing” digits but changed the anatomical map of the horse foot.

    As far as the front legs go, Solounias and coauthors point out, the traditional structure largely holds. Horses stand on their third finger, with the lateral splints being remnants of fingers two and three. But each of those splints have ridges on the bottom sides, which the experts suggest are the remainders of the lost digits one and five (think your thumb and pinky).

    The rear feet are a different story. There’s a specialized structure called the frog on the bottom of the back hoof that’s the remainder of the second and fourth toes. But there are more subtle structures - called “the wings and hoof cartilages” - that are the remnants of the first and fifth toes.
    [.......]
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    Last edited: Aug 16, 2018
  5. RetiredGySgt
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    Horses provide proof that evolution occurs WITHIN a species at no time does it provide proof that a single mammal species evolves into 2 or more different species
     
  6. Fort Fun Indiana
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    Fort Fun Indiana Gold Member

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    Of course, the vestigial limbs we observed can be compared directly with structures in the ancestors of horses, as can all of the other structures. In this way, we can easily see the progression of the evolution of different species in the lineage of rhoses.
     

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