I'm reading the 2010 book "South Africa's Brave New World" and it makes it clear that ending apartheid has made SA worse off. SA used to be a genuine first world country - when whites ran everything. But 18 years ago blacks took over and the country has been going downhill since mainly due to massive affirmative action programs that have replaced competent white scientists and businessmen and administrators with blacks who are barely literate. Africa peaked around 1950 when europeans ran the continent. Then the majority blacks decided to take over in country after country and every time the result has been the same. Things are ok for 10 years but then infrastructure breaks down and blacks can't fix it. Fifty years ago even the Congo was fairly advanced with roads and schools and hospitals. Now it has a per capita GDP of $400.