From Wolfgang Schivelbusch, "Three New Deals," 1. Scholars have discovered that totalitarian philosophies have a social-egalitarian component that adds to the mass popularity of such regimes. Thus, not only National Socialism, with its belief that its racial doctrine entailed the promise of equality for all members of the German people, or Volk, but if one can look beyond the repression and terror, the New Deal can be seen as a series of economic misadventures achieved through the force of mass propaganda, and owing its success solely to Americas victory in WWII. a. In an insightful analysis, John A. Garraty compared Roosevelts New Deal with aspects of the Third Reich: a strong leader; an ideology stressing the nation, the people and the land; state control of economic and social affairs; and the quality and quantity of government propaganda. Garraty, The New Deal, National Socialism, and the Great Depression, American Historical Review, vol. 78 (1973) p. 907ff. b. Garraty reminds that to compare is not the same as to equate. Yet, many still find Garratys analysis too hot to handle. 2. The defining historical moment for the thinking of the 1930s was the Great Depression. Many intellectuals decided that there was no particular reason to prefer the political system most closely associated with capitalism, liberal democracy, as opposed to the new systems that promised a brighter future. It is false to believe that the enlightened even here in America, were not predisposed toward Fascism, and National Socialism. Many within the liberal camp were ready and willing to save the situation by jettisoning liberal ballast, and proposed imitating various Fascist models. a. The many forms of neo-socialism moved right into fascism. A case in point is Mussolini, once an ardent socialist, who created Fascism as a better form of socialism. b. In France,Marcel Deat envisioned a form of society neither socialist nor capitalist, with a strong centralized state that controlled capital without appropriating it. In England, John Middleton Murray foresaw a government of national security which achieves the goal of economic separation of property and control c. The term liberal, as used here, refers to economic and political laissez-faire philosophy originating with Adam Smith and the free-trade of Manchester capitalism. 3. Noting the areas of convergence among the New Deal, Fascism and National Socialism, all three were considered postliberal state-capitalist, or state-socialist systems more closely related to one another than to classic Anglo-French liberalism. Hitler, Mussolini, and Roosevelt were seen as examples of plebiscite-based leadership, autocrats who came to power by varying but legal means, with socially oriented policies of collective consolidation. a. Were it not for the revelations of WWII, many of the American Left today would still claim lineage with Fascists and National Socialists. History, an important tool in understanding the present.