Great Castles Of Europe

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    Linderhof Palace, FRG

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    Linderhof Palace (German: Schloss Linderhof) is a Schloss in Germany, in southwest Bavaria near Ettal Abbey. It is the smallest of the three palaces built by King Ludwig II of Bavaria and the only one which he lived to see completed.

    Development of the building
    Ludwig already knew the area around Linderhof from his youth when he had accompanied his father King Maximilian II of Bavaria on his hunting trips in the Bavarian Alps. When Ludwig II became King in 1864 he inherited the so-called Königshäuschen from his father, and in 1869 began enlarging the building. In 1874 he decided to tear down the Königshäuschen and rebuild it on its present-day location in the park. At the same time three new rooms and the staircase were added to the remaining U-shaped complex, and the previous wooden exterior was clad with stone façades. The building was designed in the style of the second rococo-period. Between 1863 and 1886 a total of 8,460,937 marks was spent constructing Linderhof.[1]

    Symbolic background
    Although Linderhof is much smaller than Versailles, it is evident that the palace of the French Sun-King Louis XIV (who was an idol for Ludwig) was its inspiration. The staircase, for example, is a reduction of the famous Ambassador's staircase in Versailles, which would be copied in full in Herrenchiemsee. Stylistically, however, the building and its decor take their cues from the mid-18th century Rococo of Louis XV, and the small palace in the Graswang was more directly based on that king's Petit Trianon on the Versailles grounds.[2] The symbol of the sun that can be found everywhere in the decoration of the rooms represents the French notion of absolutism that, for Ludwig, was the perfect incorporation of his ideal of a God-given monarchy with total royal power. Such a monarchy could no longer be realised in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century. The bedroom was important to the ceremonial life of an absolute monarch; Louis XIV of France used to give his first (lever) and last audience (coucher) of the day in his bedchamber. In imitation of Versailles, the bedroom is the largest chamber of Linderhof Palace. By facing north, however, the Linderhof bedroom inverts the symbolism of its Versailles counterpart, showing Ludwig's self-image as a "Night-King."

    The location of the palace near Ettal Abbey again presents another interesting point. Because of its architecture Ludwig saw the church of the monastery as the room where the holy grail was preserved. This fact connects the idea of a baroque palace to the one of a "medieval" castle such as Neuschwanstein and reminds of the operas of Richard Wagner whose patron Ludwig was.

    The rooms
    Linderhof, in comparison to other palaces, has a rather private atmosphere. In fact, there are only four rooms that have a real function.

    Hall of Mirrors
    This room was used by the king as some kind of living room. He enjoyed sitting in the niche, sometimes reading there the whole night. Because Ludwig II used to sleep in the daytime and stay awake in the night, the mirrors created an unimaginable effect for him when they reflected the light of the candles a thousand times. The parallel placement of some mirrors evoke the illusion of a never ending avenue.

    Appointments:

    The middle table has a top with lapis-lazuli, amethyst and chalcedony inlay work and shows the Bavarian coat of arms in glass mosaic.

    A carpet made of ostrich plumes.

    An ivory candelabra in the alcove with 16 branches.

    Two mantelpieces clad with lapis-lazuli and decorated with gilded bronze ornaments.

    Eastern and Western Tapestry Chambers
    The two tapestry chambers are almost identical and have no specific function. The western one is sometimes called "Music Room" because of the aeolodion (an instrument combining piano and harmonium) in it. Only the curtains and the coverings on the furniture are real products of the Parisian Gobelin Manufactory. The scenes on the walls are painted on rough canvas in order to imitate real tapestries.

    Audience Chamber
    The audience chamber is located to the west of the palace and is flanked by the yellow and lilac cabinets. The cabinets were only used as antechambers to the larger rooms. Ludwig II never used this room to hold an audience. This would have been against the private character of Linderhof and the chamber would have been much too small for it. He rather used it as a study where he thought about new building projects. That there is an audience chamber in Linderhof, however, reminds us of the demand of the king on an absolute monarchy.

    Appointments:

    Two round tables with malachite tops, gift of Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia to King Ludwig II.

    Throne baldachin with ostrich feather bunches (as an oriental symbol of royal power).

    Dining Room
    This room is located to the east and is flanked by the pink and blue cabinets. The pink cabinet, unlike the other cabinets, had a real function. The king used it as a robing room. The dining room is famous for its disappearing dumb-waiter called "Tischlein deck dich". This table was installed so that Ludwig could dine alone here. Yet the staff had to lay the table for at least four persons because it is said that the king used to talk to imaginary people like Louis XV, Mme de Pompadour or Marie Antoinette while he was eating. For Ludwig II enjoyed the company of those people and admired them. You can find portraits of them in the cabinets, and scenes of their lives everywhere in the palace's rooms.

    Appointments:

    Meissen porcelain centrepiece with china flowers.

    Bedchamber
    The model for this room was not Louis XIV's bedchamber in Versailles but the bedroom of the Rich Rooms in Munich Residence. This room was completely rebuilt in 1884 and could not be totally finished until the king's death two years later. The position of the bed itself on steps in the alcove that is closed off by a gilded balustrade gives it the appearance of an altar and thereby glorifies Ludwig II as he slept during the day.

    Appointments:

    A glass candelabra with 108 candles.

    Two console tables of Meissen porcelain (which was the king's favorite china)

    The park
    The gardens surrounding Linderhof Palace are considered one of the most beautiful creations of historicist garden design, designed by Court Garden Director Carl von Effner. The park combines formal elements of Baroque style or Italian Renaissance gardens with landscaped sections that are similar to the English garden.

    Linderhof's Linden or The Old "Königslinde"
    Deriving from the romantic image of animated nature Ludwig was fascinated by trees. For this reason a tall, 300-year-old linden tree was allowed to remain in the formal gardens although disturbing its symmetry. Historic pictures show a seat in it, where Ludwig used to take his "breakfast" at sunset hidden from view amongst the branches. Contrary to common understanding the tree did not give the palace its name. It came from a family called "Linder" that used to cultivate the farm (in German "Hof" = farm) that over centuries had been in the place where now Linderhof palace is.[3]

    Formal gardens
    The palace is surrounded by formal gardens that are subdivided into five sections that are decorated with allegoric sculptures of the continents, the seasons and the elements:

    The northern part is characterized by a cascade of thirty marble steps. The bottom end of the cascade is formed by the Neptune fountain and at the top there is a Music Pavilion.

    The centre of the western parterre is formed by basin with the gilt figure of "Fama". In the west there is a pavilion with the bust of Louis XIV. In front of it you see a fountain with the gilt sculpture "Amor with dolphins". The garden is decorated with four majolica vases.

    The crowning of the eastern parterre is a wooden pavilion containing the bust of Louis XVI. Twenty-four steps below it there is a fountain basin with a gilt sculpture "Amor shooting an arrow". A sculpture of "Venus and Adonis" is placed between the basin and the palace.

    The water parterre in front of the palace is dominated by a large basin with the gilt fountain group "Flora and puttos". The fountain's water jet itself is nearly 25 meters high.

    The terrace gardens form the southern part of the park and correspond to the cascade in the north. On the landing of the first flight there is the "Naiad fountain" consisting of three basins and the sculptures of water nymphs. In the middle arch of the niche you see the bust of Marie Antoinette of France. These gardens are crowned by a round temple with a statue of Venus formed after a painting by Antoine Watteau (The Embarkation for Cythera).

    Landscape garden and structures in the park
    The landscape garden covers an area of about 50 hectares (125 acres) and is perfectly integrated in the surrounding natural alpine landscape. There are several buildings of different appearance located in the park.

    Venus Grotto
    The building is wholly artificial and was built for the king as an illustration of the First Act of Wagner's "Tannhäuser". Ludwig liked to be rowed over the lake in his golden swan-boat but at the same time he wanted his own blue grotto of Capri. Therefore, 24 dynamos had been installed and so already in the time of Ludwig II it was possible to illuminate the grotto in changing colours.

    Hunding's Hut
    This hut was inspired by Richard Wagner's directions for the First Act of the "Valkyrie". Ludwig used to celebrate Germanic feasts in this house.

    Gurnemanz Hermitage
    Ludwig came here for contemplation every year on Good Friday. For this day he wanted a flowering meadow. If there was no such meadow because there was still snow lying, the garden director had to plant one for the king.

    These three structures, the "Venus Grotto", "Hunding's Hut" and "Gurnemanz Hermitage" remind us another time of the operas of Richard Wagner. But besides that and the baroque architecture Ludwig was also interested in the oriental world.

    Moorish Kiosk
    This building was designed by the Berliner architect Karl von Diebitsch for the International Exhibition in Paris 1867. Ludwig II wanted to buy it but was forestalled by the railroad king Bethel Henry Strousberg. Ludwig bought the pavilion after the bankruptcy of Strousberg. The most notable piece of furniture of this building is the peacock throne.

    Moroccan House
    This house was actually built in Morocco for the International Exhibition in Vienna 1873. The king bought it in 1878 and redecorated it in a more royal way.

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    Linderhof Palace - Wikipedia
     
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    Heisdorf Castle, Luxembourg

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    Heisdorf Castle (French: Château de Heisdorf) located in the village of Heisdorf in central Luxembourg was built by Baron Lippmann in the late 19th century. Surrounded by a large park, it was designed by the Belgian architect Charles Thirion. In 1916, the Sisters of the Christian Doctrine acquired the property as a convalescent home for their community. In 1982, it was opened as an old people's home under the name of Maison de retraite Marie-Consolatrice.[1] In 2007, a new wing was added to the building by the architecture firm Hermann, Valentiny and Partners providing improved facilities for its senior citizens.[2]

    History
    In 940, Heisdorf was first mentioned in a document, when King Otto I confirmed the Trier St. Maximin's Abbey's property in Hehchichesdorf. It was probably around that time, the 10th or 11th century, that a castle was built here, with a fortified tower, whose ruins existed until 2006.

    In 1314, Heinrich von Stein, or de Lapide, was first mentioned in records as Lord of Heisdorf and owner of the castle.

    In 1639, Baron Jean de Beck bought the castle from the descendants of the medieval owners, in order to build a new castle, which was completed by 1645. Jean de Beck, who had acquired a large fortune as well as a noble title while in the service of the Austrian army, also built a castle in Beaufort.

    The castle was square, with a fortified wall around it and a tower at each corner. On the side of the Alzette, there was still the large medieval tower.

    Beck's building was built along the main road, where the main entrance was also, and consisted of three wings.

    The castle was destroyed in 1681 by invading French troops, but was rebuilt in 1685.

    In 1711, the descendants of Jean de Beck sold the castle to Guillaume-François and Philippe de Marchant, who owned the forge in Dommeldange.

    By 1766, when a cadaster was established under Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, the castle had fallen into disrepair and was only inhabited by a caretaker.

    In 1778, the castle came under the ownership of two Alsatian families one after another, first the Mohr de Waldt and then the de Reinach family.

    In 1878, their descendants sold the property to the banker, Léon Lippmann, and his wife Lina Nathan. After Léon Lippmann's death in 1883, his widow had Jean de Beck's building torn down, in order to build a new construction.

    Appearance
    The castle consists of two wings at a right angle to one another. The main entrance is in the middle of the building, in the square tower which connects the two wings. The end of the wing on the Alzette side consists of a round tower with a roof in form of a cupola, with a spire above it. This tower contains the knights' hall. From the outside, a monumental stairway leads to the first floor of the tower. Above the main entrance, one can see the years 1645 and 1888. The present castle was built in 1888, on the location where Jean de Beck had built a previous castle in 1645. The castle includes a chapel, which was built by the Sisters in 1924, on the side of the main street, where the two wings are connected.

    Chapel
    The chapel was built in 1924 and renovated in 2005-2006. The following are of cultural significance:

    • A wooden sculpture of Jesus on the cross. This was presumably made in a workshop in Lorraine. In 1983 the Sisters brought it to from Nancy to Heisdorf
    • Stations of the Cross made of enamel, by the Schwarzmann firm in Trier
    • Leaded windows by Gust Zanter.
    Attached buildings
    Two other buildings are linked to the Castle: one is the Regina-Pacis House, which is connected to the Castle via a bridge. The house was opened in 1992, and was designed by the architect Michel Mousel.

    The castle also has a modern wing, on the Walferdange side; this was completed in 2007, to a design by the architectural firm Hermann & Valentiny.

    Along the Mullendorf road is a service building from the early 19th century, which incorporates three portal entrances from the castle of Jean de Beck. One portal has the coat of arms of Jean de Beck and of his wife Catherine de Capelle, as well as the date 1645 (the year in which Jean de Beck's castle was completed).

    Park
    The castle grounds include a large park, along the main road, from which it is separated by a high wall. The park was renovated after 1910, which left the old trees standing. Two of these, a black pine and an oak tree, are counted among the "notable trees" of Luxembourg.

    In the park grounds, there are three separate buildings, which are used for social purposes:

    • the Haus Marie-Consolatrice (opened in 1982), on the Mullendorf side: an old people's home
    • the Haus Nico-Kremer, alsos called the Foyer du Tricentenaire (1996), a home for the handicapped
    • the Chalet Ginkgo (the former laundry building); used since 1980 by youth groups
     
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    Larochette Castle, Luxembourg

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    Larochette Castle (Luxembourgish: Buerg Fiels, German: Burg Fels, French: Château de Larochette) stands high above the town of Larochette in central Luxembourg. Dating from the 11th century, the castle was destroyed by fire at the end of the 16th century. Since its acquisition by the State of Luxembourg in 1979, some restoration work has been undertaken.[1]

    Location
    The castle ruins are located on a promontory some 150 metres above the White Ernz which runs through the small town of Larochette. The access road crosses a large farmyard with fortified earthworks. The main building is surrounded by a wall, now partly destroyed. A deep ditch divides the castle into two parts. At the far end of the promontory, the remains of several manor houses attest to the high quality of the architecture and its rather pompous style.[1]

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    Larochette Castle: main building
    History
    The earliest references to the castle are from the end of the 11th century and during the 12th century when the lords of Larochette (Van der Feltz) were flag bearers for the counts of Luxembourg. The family proliferated leading to the construction of the five stately houses which are separate from the main structure. They include the Homburg Manor (1350) and the Créhange Manor (1385) both of which have now been restored.[2] The Verlorenkost (literally Lost Food) watchtower also stands alone on the south side. The legend goes that the cook was carrying pots full of food when she stumbled, breaking everything.[3]

    The Créhange manor now contains period artwork. There is a well inside which also has its legend, telling how the lady of the castle jumped into the well with her child while the castle was under attack. After rescuing the brave woman, the invaders accused the steward of the castle of treason and threw him into the well. It is said that he reappears every Good Friday in the form of a dragon.[4]

    Visiting times
    The castle is open to the public from Easter until the end of October, every day from 10 am to 6 pm.[5]

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    Château de Chambord, Chambord, France

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    The Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France, is one of the most recognisable châteaux in the world because of its very distinctive French Renaissance architecture which blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Renaissance structures. The building, which was never completed, was constructed by King Francis I of France.


    Chambord is the largest château in the Loire Valley; it was built to serve as a hunting lodge for Francis I, who maintained his royal residences at the Château de Blois and Amboise. The original design of the Château de Chambord is attributed, though with some doubt, to Domenico da Cortona; Leonardo da Vinci may also have been involved.


    Chambord was altered considerably during the twenty-eight years of its construction (1519–1547), during which it was overseen on-site by Pierre Nepveu. With the château nearing completion, Francis showed off his enormous symbol of wealth and power by hosting his old archrival, Emperor Charles V, at Chambord.


    In 1792, in the wake of the French Revolution, some of the furnishings were sold and timber removed. For a time the building was left abandoned, though in the 19th century some attempts were made at restoration. During the Second World War, art works from the collections of the Louvre and the Château de Compiègne were moved to the Château de Chambord. The château is now open to the public, receiving 700,000 visitors in 2007. Flooding in June 2016 damaged the grounds but not the château itself.

    Architecture
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    Plan of the château as engraved by Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (1576)
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    The château and decorative moat, viewed from the North-West (2015)
    Châteaux in the 16th-century departed from castle architecture;[nb 1] while they were off-shoots of castles, with features commonly associated with them, they did not have serious defences. Extensive gardens and water features, such as a moat, were common amongst châteaux from this period. Chambord is no exception to this pattern. The layout is reminiscent of a typical castle with a keep, corner towers, and defended by a moat.[3] Built in Renaissance style, the internal layout is an early example of the French and Italian style of grouping rooms into self-contained suites, a departure from the medieval style of corridor rooms.[4][nb 2] The massive château is composed of a central keep with four immense bastion towers at the corners. The keep also forms part of the front wall of a larger compound with two more large towers. Bases for a possible further two towers are found at the rear, but these were never developed, and remain the same height as the wall. The château features 440 rooms, 282 fireplaces, and 84 staircases. Four rectangular vaulted hallways on each floor form a cross-shape.

    The château was never intended to provide any form of defence from enemies; consequently the walls, towers and partial moat are decorative, and even at the time were an anachronism. Some elements of the architecture – open windows, loggia, and a vast outdoor area at the top – borrowed from the Italian Renaissance architecture – are less practical in cold and damp northern France.

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    The elaborately developed roof line. It should be noted that the keep's façade is asymmetrical, with the exception of the Northwest façade, latterly revised, when the two wings were added to the château.
    The roofscape of Chambord contrasts with the masses of its masonry and has often been compared with the skyline of a town:[6] it shows eleven kinds of towers and three types of chimneys, without symmetry, framed at the corners by the massive towers. The design parallels are north Italian and Leonardesque. Writer Henry James remarked "the towers, cupolas, the gables, the lanterns, the chimneys, look more like the spires of a city than the salient points of a single building."[7][8]

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    The double-spiral staircase
    One of the architectural highlights is the spectacular open double spiral staircase that is the centrepiece of the château. The two spirals ascend the three floors without ever meeting, illuminated from above by a sort of light house at the highest point of the château. There are suggestions that Leonardo da Vinci may have designed the staircase, but this has not been confirmed. Writer John Evelyn said of the staircase "it is devised with four (sic) entries or ascents, which cross one another, so that though four persons meet, they never come in sight, but by small loopholes, till they land. It consists of 274 steps (as I remember), and is an extraordinary work, but of far greater expense than use or beauty."[8]

    The château also features 128 meters of façade, more than 800 sculpted columns and an elaborately decorated roof. When Francis I commissioned the construction of Chambord, he wanted it to look like the skyline of Constantinople.

    The château is surrounded by a 52.5‑km² (13,000‑acre) wooded park and game reserve maintained with red deer, enclosed by a 31‑kilometer (20‑mile) wall. The king's plan to divert the Loire to surround the château came about only in a novel; Amadis of Gaul, which Francis had translated. In the novel the château is referred to as the Palace of Firm Isle.

    Chambord's towers are atypical of French contemporary design in that they lack turrets and spires. In the opinion of author Tanaka, who suggests Leonardo da Vinci influenced the château's design, they are closer in design to minarets of 15th-century Milan.[6]

    The design and architecture of the château inspired William Henry Crossland for his design of what is known as the Founder's building at Royal Holloway, University of London. The Founder's Building features very similar towers and layout but was built using red bricks.

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    Watch this in full screen.....it's very clear....

     
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    Château de Vitré, France

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    The Château de Vitré is a medieval castle in the town of Vitré, in the Ille-et-Vilaine département of France.

    The first castle in Vitré was built of wood on a feudal motte around the year 1000 on the Sainte-Croix hill. The castle was burned down on several occasions, and eventually was bequeathed to the Benedictine monks of Marmoutier Abbey.

    The first stone castle was built by the baron Robert I of Vitré at the end of the 11th century. The defensive site chosen, a rocky promontory, dominated the valley of the Vilaine. A Romanesque style doorway still survives from this building. During the first half of the 13th century, baron André III, rebuilt it in its present triangular form, following the contours of the rocks, surrounded with dry moats.

    At his death, the land fell to the family of the Counts of Laval. Guy XII de Laval enlarged the castle in the 15th century. During this period, the final defensive works were realised, notably the gatehouse with double drawbridge, tour Saint-Laurent (St Laurent Tower, the main keep later pierced with cannon apertures) and tour de la Madeleine (Magdalene Tower). Nevertheless, in 1487, Guy XV de Laval opened the castle to French troops without a fight.

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    South façade and Place Saint-Yves
    From the end of the 15th century, alterations concentrated on improving the comfort of the castle, including the construction of galleries and a renaissance style oratory(1530). The Parlement of Brittany took refuge in the castle three times (in 1564, 1582 and 1583), while plague raged in Rennes.

    Under the Rieux and Cologny families, owners of the castle between 1547 and 1605, Vitré sheltered Protestants and became for some years a Huguenot stronghold. In 1589, the castle resisted a five-month siege by the Duc de Mercœur. In 1605, the castle became the property of the Trémoille family, originally from Poitou. The castle was abandoned in the 17th century and began to decline, notably with the partial collapse of the St Laurent Tower and the accidental fire which destroyed the feudal residence at the end of the 18th century.

    A départemental prison was built in place of the residence and occupied the northern part of the castle, including the Magdalene Tower. The prison became a barracks with the arrival of the 70th infantry regiment between 1876 and 1877.

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    East façade and Place du Château
    The castle was bought by the town in the 1820 for 8500 francs.[1] In 1872, it was one of the first castles in France to be classified as a monument historique (historic monument) and restored from 1875 under the direction of the architect Darcy. Placed in the public domain, the castle was furnished with a small museum, in 1876, inspired by Arthur de la Borderie. Paradoxically, he destroyed the collégiale de la Madeleine (collegiate church of the Madeleine) in the castle courtyard while he was in charge of conservation for the town. A boys' school was built in its place.

    Today, the Vitré town hall stands inside the curtain wall, in a building reconstructed in 1912 following the plans of the medieval residence. The Place du Château, outside the castle, used to be the castle forecourt where stables and outbuildings were. It is now a car park that will be revamped in 2007 to properly show off one of the most imposing castles in France.

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      East façade

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      Detail of gatehouse entrance

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      Fortified gatehouse from inside of the courtyard

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      West façade
     
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    Doorwerth Castle, Netherlands

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    Doorwerth Castle (Dutch: Kasteel Doorwerth) is a medieval castle situated on the river Rhine near the city of Arnhem, Netherlands.

    Contents
    History
    The original castle, probably wooden, is first mentioned in 1260 when it was besieged and burned to the ground, after which it was rebuilt in stone. In 1280 this second castle was again besieged and this time the bailey was burned down. This castle probably consisted of a simple hall-keep, two stories high with 1.20 meter thick walls, and featured a surrounding moat which was fed by the nearby river Rhine.

    During the 14th century the castle was continually enlarged. Doorwerth Castle was originally the property of the Van Dorenweerd family. In 1402 Robert van Dorenweerd dedicated the castle to the Count of Gelre, Reinald IV. In return Robert was granted the castle and its land in fief. Around the middle of the 15th century the castle was enlarged again, this time by knight Reinald van Homoet, the 10th Lord of Dorenweerd, who was also the owner of Doornenburg Castle.

    Doorwerth Castle reached its largest form just after the middle of the 16th century under Daem Schellart van Obbendorf, the 15th Lord of Dorenweerd. He made the castle and the group of buildings on the bailey into a unity and adjusted them for more space and comfort. By 1560 Doorwerth Castle had almost reached its present appearance. Around 1637 the bailey was rebuilt to its present appearance and a dike was built around the castle to protect it from flooding of the river Rhine.

    Shortly after, the castle changed ownership due to financial problems and was granted in fief to a German Count, Anton I van Aldenburg. His successors did not alter the castle or bailey but did acquire more land. At the end of the 18th century the castle was no longer inhabited, but was looked after by a steward for its owners who now lived in England.

    Modern times
    As a result, the castle was in a neglected state when it was bought, in 1837, by the baron JAP. van Brakell. He carried out a thorough restoration and a complete modernization of the castle. This revival of the castle only lasted for a short time; after the baron's death in 1844 the castle again fell into neglect. It remained neglected until 1910, when it was bought by retired artillery officer Frederic Adolph Hoefer. Again the castle was thoroughly restored, undoing some of the 19th century alterations and additions. After 1913 it was used as a Dutch Artillery Museum.

    The castle suffered heavily in 1944 as a result of German destructiveness and Allied shelling during World War II. Directly after WW II a lengthy restoration began that lasted until 1983. By then the castle was back into its 18th-century state and was owned by the "Friends of the Castles of Gelderland" foundation who now maintain the castle as a museum.

    In 1969-1970, Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema wrote his famous book Soldaat van Oranje (Soldier of Orange) in the restaurant Beaulieu.[1]

    Dutch film director Stephan Brenninkmeijer was born at Doorwerth castle in 1964 and lived there until 1970.[2]

    In 2004, the Castle was investigated for the ghosts allegedly haunting it by the British paranormal television show Most Haunted.

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      Translation: "To G.H. Brenninkmeijer - in memory of the hospitality and leisure enjoyed in "Beaulieu", during the writing of this book in Doorwerth, 1969-1970. Sincerely Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema. May 1971")

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      Doorwerth, castle: kasteel Doorwerth

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      Main tower

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      Main gate

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      Castle tower

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      Inside the castle

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      450-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia
     
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    Charlottenlund Palace, Denmark

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    Charlottenlund Palace (Danish: Charlottenlund Slot) is a former royal summer residence in Charlottenlund, some 10 km north of central Copenhagen, Denmark. The palace was named after Princess Charlotte Amalie, who was responsible for the construction of the original palace. It was later extended and adapted for Crown Prince Frederick VIII to a design by Ferdinand Meldahl in the early 1880s.

    From 1935 to 2017, the building has housed the Danish Biological Station (Dansk Biologisk Station),[1] later renamed Danish Fishery Survey and in the final years called DTU Aqua. It is now a cultural event venue.[2] The Great Hall is occasionally used for classical concerts.[citation needed]

    Contents
    History
    Origins
    In 1622, King Christian IV established a new deer park at the site, which was to replace Rosenborg Deer Park at Rosenborg Castle just outside Copenhagen. It was referred to variously as "Kongens nye dyrehave ved Skovshoved" ("The King's new deer park at Skovshoved"), "Gentofte dyrehave ved stranden" ("Gentofte deer park by the beach"), "Den lille dyrehave ved Ibstrub" ("The small deer park at Ibstrub") and "Freudendahl".

    In 1663, King Frederick III ceded the deer park to one of his courtiers, Jacob Petersen (Jammertjener, later rigsbaron).[3] With Henrik Ruse, he opened an inn at the site.

    Gyldenlund
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    Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve.
    Due to a dispute at the court, Jacob Petersen had to leave the country. After his property was then taken over by Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, an acknowledged illegitimate son of King Frederick III, it became known as Gyldenlund after its new owner. He renovated the buildings as well as the fishing ponds and constructed a new summer residence in the grounds. The exact location of the new house is not known but it is assumed that it was located at the site of the current palace.

    Gyldenløve had owned Gyldenlund for some ten years when Frederick III claimed it back in exchange for Skjoldenæsholm at Ringsted. The king used the house as a summer retreat and for hunting. Christian V constructed Jægersborg Allé in 1706, originally as a private road, connecting the two royal residences in Charlottenlund and Jægersborg.[4]

    Charlottenlund
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    Charlottenlund in 1744
    In 1730, Crown Prince Christian (VI) gave Gyldenlund to his sister, Princess Charlotte Amalie. She replaced the house with a new building in the Baroque style. The construction took place under supervision of Engineer Officer H. H. Scheel, probably to a design by Johan Cornelius Krieger.[5] Many of the building materials came from Copenhagen Castle which was under demolition.

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    Charlottenlund Palace, drawing by H.G.F. Holm, c. 1830
    In the middle of the 19th century, Charlottenlund Palace was for many years the home of Louise Charlotte and Prince William of Hesse-Kassel.[5] Quite atypically for a royal residence, the park remained open to the public. Throughout the century, on and off, it was a favourite excursion spot for Copenhageners on Sundays.

    In 1869, Crown Prince Frederick and his wife Lovisa of Sweden took over the palace. Both Christian X of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway were born in the building. In 1880–81, Ferdinand Meldahl undertook a major rebuilding of the palace. The queen dowager Louise lived there until her death in 1926.[5]

    Later history
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    Charlottenlund Palace after the extension, c. 1890
    The royal family discontinued using the palace in 1935 and made it available to the Danish Biological Station (Dansk Biologisk Station),[1] later renamed to Danish Fishery Survey (Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser). The Danish National Aquarium opened in a corner of the park in 1939 where it remained until 2013 when The Blue Planet was inaugurated in Kastrup. The Danish Fishery Survey, now called DTU Aqua, became a department under the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in 2001. The department planned to move to a new building at DTU's main campus in Lyngby in 2015.[needs update] The future use of Charlottenlund Palace had not yet been decided as of January 2016.[6][needs update]

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    Charlottenlund Palace as seen from the garden
    Architecture
    Meldahl's extension of the palace in the 1880s adapted the original Baroque palace to reflect the French Renaissance style that characterizes its architecture today. Meldahl extended the building with two bays and the two corner risalits on the front side. The central hall with dome and lantern were also added.[5] On the garden side there is a three bay central projection. The building was listed in 1918.[7]

    Park and surroundings
    The park has an area of 14.2 hectares. The original Baroque park was redesigned into an English-style Romantic garden in the 1880s. It contains several small buildings, including an ice house and a thatched, yellow building with timber framing that has been used both as a wash house and a guard house for the Royal Life Guards.[8]

    The park adjoins Charlottenlund Beach Park and Charlottenlund Forest.[9]
     
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    Fredensborg Palace, Denmark

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    Fredensborg Palace (Danish: Fredensborg Slot; pronounced [ˈfʁæðˀn̩sbɒːˀ]) is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum (Danish, Esrum Sø) in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, and is often the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family. It is the most used of the Royal Family’s residences.

    Contents
    History
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    Fredensborg in 1728
    At the end of the Great Northern War King Frederick IV asked architect Johan Cornelius Krieger, royal gardener to the court at Rosenborg Castle, to build him a small pleasure palace on the site of a farmyard named Østrup. Krieger built the French-inspired baroque palace 1720–1726, and the King himself took an active part in the planning of the building and grounds, and followed construction closely. The man responsible for the actual construction was General Building Master Johan Conrad Ernst, who was also responsible for the construction of Frederiksberg Palace.[1]

    While the building was still under construction Denmark–Norway and Sweden negotiated a peace treaty, which was signed July 3, 1720 on the site of the unfinished palace The treaty determined the fate of Skåne, which since that time has been a part of Sweden, and ended Denmark’s eleven-year participation in the Great Northern War.[1] To commemorate the signing of the peace accord the palace was named Fredens Borg (lit. "Peace's Castle").

    The palace complex consisted of a small, almost square,  1 1⁄2-storey-high main palace with dome and lanterns. It is positioned exactly at the centre of what is known as a "hunting star" (Danish, jagtstjerne), a number of straight intersecting paths in a game hunting reserve. During a hunt it was permissible to shoot freely straight down the long paths, which radiated out from the centre. The dome hall measured 15 x 15 m, and had a height of 27 m. The sumptuous room featured stucco by C.E. Brenno and a plafond by Hendrick Krock.

    In front of the main building was placed an octagonal courtyard encircled by the single-storey servants' wings, called Red Wing. It is the only red building at Fredensborg Palace, and it has open half-timbers under a red tile roof.

    East of the octagon were the riding ring and the long stables building;

    To the east and adjacent to the main palace was an Orangery and the one-storey building called Margrave House. The Orangery, which was equipped with huge glasshouse windows, was connected to the main building by a small secret passage, so that the Royal Family and the courtiers could walk to the chapel without getting their feet wet.

    The palace chapel stood in the middle of the two buildings, and has an exaggerated copper spire, a pilaster-decorated façade facing the riding ring, and a heavily carved gable featuring a bust of Frederik IV in relief carved by Didrick Gercken.

    On the other side of the church was the Courtiers Wing ("Kavalerfløj"), residences for the court’s clerks and members of the Royal Household. This section of the palace was built from 1724–1726, and introduces elements of the Dutch Baroque style and Rococo.

    The palace was extended throughout the early 18th century, however the main structure of the palace has remained unchanged since its inauguration on October 11, 1722, the King’s 51st birthday.[1]

    Krieger completed his work on the palace with the erection of the “new Court Chancery building” in 1731. The black-glazed tile, half-hipped roof building is now known as The Chancellery House. It butted up to the riding-ring on the southern edge. Until her death, the late Queen Mother, Queen Ingrid used this house as her private residence. The part of palace Chancellery House is the spring and autumn home of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary.

    A major alteration of Krieger’s original building was made in 1741–1744 when Lauritz de Thurah, the King’s favorite architect, elevated the roof of the palace’s main building. The slanted roof was replaced by a flat one, and a characteristically de Thurah sandstone balustrade was erected. In 1751 he also transformed the Orangery into a residential building for the ladies-in-waiting.

    In 1753 Nicolai Eigtved extended the palace by adding four symmetrically-positioned corner pavilions with copper pyramid-shaped roofs to the main building.

    In the 19th century, King Christian IX and Queen Louise, who counted England's Queen Alexandra, King George I of Greece and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia amongst their children used Fredensborg to host annual family reunions. There, their grandchildren, including the future Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kings George V of the United Kingdom, Haakon VII of Norway, and Constantine I of Greece, as well as the future Queen Maud of Norway, would play games in the park.

    The park and gardens
    The palace gardens are among Denmark's largest historical gardens, and are Denmark’s finest example of a baroque garden. These too was designed by Krieger, and were extended and altered during the 18th century.[1] The long, straight avenues which extend from the castle in a star-shaped pattern were recreated in the 1970s to 1990s. Between these avenues lies large wooded areas with winding paths. Most of the statues in the gardens were sculptured by Johannes Wiedewelt.[2]

    Of special interest is the "Valley of the Norsemen (Danish: Nordmandsdalen) with approximately 70 sculptures of Norwegian and Faroese farmers and fishermen, originally carved by J.G. Grund.[2] The garden is open all year round.

    The area of the gardens closest to the palace is reserved for the Royal Family, but is usually open to the public in July.[3] Here are the kitchen gardens, which supply fresh vegetables for the household, and a modern orangery, which was opened in 1995.

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      A soldier marching in front of the palace

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      A view of the palace from the garden

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      Sculptures in the Valley of the Norsemen
    Surrounding forests
    Two of the forests in the surrounding area, Gribskov and Store Dyrehave were developed in the 1680s under King Christian V for par force hunting with a mathematically designed system of access roads. They have now been included in the UNESCO World Heritage
     
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    Seville Barocco Palace, Spain

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