July 4 1872 Calvin Coolidge born. 30th president (1923-1929), the only President born on Independence Day. He gained national fame as governor of Massachusetts when he called out the National Guard during the police strike in Boston in 1919, stating There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time! This gained him the vice-presidency. He became President upon the death of Harding. The following day, August 3, 1923, he had his father, a notary public, swear him in, thus he became the only President to take the oath of office from his own father. He believed that the government that governs best governs least, and the business of America is business. Although he did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize himself, his Secretary of State Frank Kellogg won in 1929 for the Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war. He died January 5, 1933 of a heart attack. 1827 Slavery abolished in NY state. 1803 The National Intelligencer of Washington reported in that days issue that Napoleon had sold Louisiana to the United States. The sale assures forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride. 1845 President Tyler offered annexation to Texas, and the offer was accepted on this day. President Polk then asked General Zachary Taylor to defend it from Mexican attack. US sent John Slidell to discus boundaries: US wanted Rio Grande, Mexico wanted the Nueces River, 150 miles to the north. Polk also offered annexation to California. On May 11, 1845, Polk sent a war message to Congress, informing that Mexico had killed a number of Americans, and a state of war existed. A young Whig named Abraham Lincoln opposed the war. 1804 Nathaniel Hawthorne born. 1754 George Washingtons second military mission to the forks of the Ohio River ended in defeat, as he surrendered the stockade, Fort Necessity, to French forces. On July 9, 1755 Washington was aide-de-camp to British General Braddock at the Monongahela River, south of Fort Duquesne when defeated again by the French. 1807 Giusepppe Garibaldi born ( - 1882) 1826 Thomas Jefferson died at 73. John Adams died the same day. The following is engraved on Jeffersons monument at Monticello: Here was buried Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of American Independence, Of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom And Father of the University of Virginia 1831 James Monroe died in NYC. He was the third president to die on the 4th of July. 1934 Marie Curie died of leukemia. 1817 Gov. DeWitt broke ground at Rome, NY for the Erie Canal. 1946 Philippines celebrated its official independence given by US. 1946 Pogrom in Kielce, Poland, costs the lives of 40 Jews. It was the worst in Europe after the end of WW II. On July 1, an 8-year-old boy named Henryk Blaszczyk was reported missing by his father. The boy showed up two days later, and explained that he had hitchhiked to his old hometown to see friends. Undeterred, the father went to the police and insisted that the boy had been held captive in the basement of Kielces Jewish community center (which didnt even have a basement). Word quickly spread that the Jews had killed a Christian child, and a detachment of police, backed by a mob, broke down the door of the building and turned their guns on the Jews barricaded inside. A new mother, Regina Fisz, was taken from her apartment, shot in the back, and her baby shot in the head. Groups of boy scouts boarded trains passing through the town, pointed out Jewish passengers to the mob who dragged them out and killed them. 1828 Baltimore and Ohio RR begun: first public RR in the US. 1776 Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, with revisions by Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Adams, is carried by Congress.