Priority of Usherenko (1974) in the region of cold fusion (synthesis) Dr. Vladimir Leonov E-mail: email@example.com Rossi's experiments stepped up interest to cold fusion: Andrea Rossi Preparing for Huge E-Cat Company (Matthew) A new energy source from nuclear fusion (Matthew) Swedish physicists run the site ecat.com (Matthew) and other. I am a supporter of cold fusion and I congratulate Rossi with well-deserved success. However, I am reminded of Andrea Rossi that an experiment was conducted in 1974 with allocation of excess energy (the Usherenko effect). This does not diminish the merits of Rossi, but confirms that he is on the right track. The Usherenko effect is works. This effect has been repeatedly tested and always was repeated. The Usherenko effect is a blow to the skeptics who believe that cold fusion is a pseudoscience and scams. Rossi can sincerely be wrong, but its E-Cat is not a scam. He spent many efforts and labor, he is an enthusiast. The fundamental science must explain the Rossi effect. The cold fusion was supported by Julian Schwinger, a Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics. The cold fusion is actively supporting a Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics Brian Josephson. He can anticipate new technologies. He deserves the glory, He deserves the honor forevermore. I did not have access to the experiments of Rossi so I will not discuss the processes E-Cat, I must to repeat the experiments of Rossi in full. But I participated in the experiments of Usherenko with him. Sergei Usherenko is my friend. You might think that the Russian is stupid because since 1974 failed to realize a new effect of in the energy sector. But Russia has a lot of oil and gas so far. For this reason the effect of Usherenko no interest to the government. However, I first drew attention to the energy aspect of the effect of Usherenko and I wrote a pamphlet: Leonov V.S., Cold synthesis in the Usherenko effect and its application in power engineering, Agrokonsalt, Moscow, 2001, 76 pages. In 1974 the young scholar Sergey Usherenko discovered the effect of the ultradeep penetration (UDP) of particle-strikers of micron sizes in solid targets with the release of colossal energy in the channel of the target. The particles 10…100 microns in size, accelerated to a speed on the order of 1 km/s, pierced right through a steel target with a thickness of 200 mm, leaving a molten channel. Even according to approximate calculations the energy required for melting the channel is 100…10000 times greater than the kinetic energy of the particle-striker. This cannot be achieved by chemical reactions. Where does the additional energy in the Usherenko effect come from? It is obvious, that this additional energy can be generated only by the high-energy processes characteristic of nuclear physics and elementary particles. The mass defect is the basis of the energy released in nuclear reactions. We need to get the thermal infrared photons in the end. The concentration of the thermal photons determines the degree of heating – the temperature. The mechanism of transformation of the mass defect in the thermal photons in nuclear reactions including the cold fusion was first considered in the theory Superunification: 1. Leonov V. S., Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. 2. V.S. Leonov., Quantum Energetics: Theory of Superunification. Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 p. The theory of Superunification is the most powerful an analytical apparatus for investigations of the fundamental interactions from unified positions. Quantum energetics is based on new fundamental discoveries of quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) made by Vladimir Leonov in 1996. On the basis of new fundamental discoveries the theory of Superunification of fundamental interactions of electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electroweak forces is completed. It is important that new fundamental discoveries have the widest practical application in the development of quantum energetics. It is discovered that the single source of energy in the Universe is the quanton in the structure of quantized space-time, which is the carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). All known methods of energy generation (chemical and nuclear reactions etc.) are reduced to the release and transformation of SEI energy. Quantum energetics is a more general concept in energetics, which includes both the new energetic cycles, and traditional ones, including nuclear energetics. The theory of Superunification reveals the structure of the basic of the elementary particles: electron, positron, proton, neutron, photon, and neutrino. LHC's experiments could not do it. I'm not interested unstable particles, because we do not know the structure of the basic of the elementary particles. But most importantly, the theory of Superunification could explain the phenomenon of the formation of the mass of elementary particles by spherical the deformation of the quantized space-time. Cold fusion has been a tempting hypothesis for a long time but is difficult to verify by experiments. It is necessary to note that no acceptable theory of cold fusion (CS) no of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) exists. The possibility of creating such a theory now exists using the theory of Superunification. The nuclear process of synthesis is called cold fusion. A synthesis of elementary particles (and antiparticles) is called cold synthesis. The traditional problem of CF and CTF is reduced to the solution of the problem of overcoming the electrostatic repulsion of the positively charged nuclei of light elements during their confluence into heavier nuclei with the release of excess energy as a result of the mass defect of the new nuclei. The level of the existing knowledge within the framework of the standard model makes it possible to propose only one solution of the problem of CTF - this is a temperature thermal hypothesis. The solution of the problem is reduced to the external thermal effect on the light nuclei when heating plasma in a magnetic trap. This solution was obtained from the positive results of the H-bomb tests. However, it is not possible to transfer all conditions of the synthesis reactions in the explosion of an H-bomb to the laboratory conditions in Tokamak-type installations. The reaction of controlled thermonuclear fusion has not been started in the laboratory despite the fact that temperatures exceeding the temperatures of thermonuclear explosion have been reached. The temperature hypothesis does not work when starting the CTF reaction. The question: ‘Why the temperature hypothesis of CTF does not work?’ is answered by the theory of Superunification. It was necessary to develop a method for calculating the forces acting on the atomic nucleus during emission (or re-emission) of the photon. Calculations show that the forces of the thermal oscillations of atoms with the emission (re-emission) of the photon are in principle insufficient for overcoming the electrostatic repulsion of the nuclei. It will never be possible to start the CTF reaction in Tokamaks only by external heating of plasma. New ideas are necessary. Supporters of controlled thermonuclear fusion, in spite of their own failures, critised extensively the possibility of realization of the cold synthesis reaction, although there is no fundamental difference between CF and CTF on the microlevel. Therefore, when Prof. Martin Fleischmann and Prof. Stanley Pons reported in 1989 in the USA on the discovery by them of the reactions of cold nuclear fusion in the laboratory, the report was received with distrust by the scientific community. Moreover, it was impossible to repeat their experiences in other laboratories. But the idea was tempting and new followers appeared. In 1995 at the International conference on nuclear reactors in the USA the Russian physicist Robert Nigmatulin presented a plenary report ‘On the prospects for the bubble thermonuclear reaction’, together with the American professor Richard Lahey: Nigmatulin R.I. and Lahey, R.T., Prospects for bubble of fusion, Proc. of the 7t Nuclear Reactor Thermohydraulics (NURETH-7), Vol. 1, 1995. This fact can be considered critical both in the theory of CTF and CF. The temperature inside a cavitation bubble during its collapse rises to millions of degrees with a simultaneous increase in the pressure, and the front of propagation of pressure is capable of generating forces, sufficient for overcoming the electrostatic repulsion of nuclei. The collapse of the cavitation bubble is the analog of the controlled microhydrogen bomb when the effect of high temperature is accompanied by high pressures and accelerations, as in a large H-bomb. Already in 2002, R. Nigmatulin together with R. Lahey, R. Taleyarkhan and other scientists, published an article in the journal Science about the preliminary results of experimental studies on the starting of the thermonuclear fusion reaction inside ‘heavy’ acetone under laboratory conditions in the cavitation regime [R. Taleyarkhan, et al., Science, 8 March 2002, 295, 1868–1873]. In spite of some distrust, the results of experiments were repeated in independent laboratories. Analyzing the Usherenko effect on the basis of the theory of Superunification, and repeating its experiments, it was established that the collapse of the melted channel in the ultradeep penetration regime in the Usherenko effect resembles the collapse of the cavitation bubble in the liquid. However, the steel target and the particles-strikers contained no light element atoms. Nuclear fusion of heavier elements or their splitting in the superdeep penetration regime with the generation of excess energy was not regarded as basic, in spite of the exposure of x-ray film next to the target. Since suitable equipment was not available, no neutrons were registered. In spite of a shortage of primary information, and taking into account only the new knowledge in the theory of Superunification, a hypothesis was proposed according to which the basic source of energy release the Usherenko effect is not nuclear fusion (cold fusion) or splitting but the synthesis of elementary particles and antiparticles (cold synthesis) from the quantised space-time. For power engineering these are the most favourable power cycles since the use of antiparticles in interaction with the particles as the fuel is ensured by the reactions with no radioactive waste. Figure 1 shows graphically the dependence of the efficiency of the energy cycle on energy yield WT of fuel. It can be seen that the graph contains three characteristic regions: I. Chemical fuel. Energy yield 10[sup]7[/sup]...10[sup]8[/sup] J/kg, efficiency ~10[sup]-7[/sup]%. Waste is ~100%. Reserves are limited. The source of energy is the mass defect of valence electrons. II. Nuclear fuel. Energy yield 10[sup]13[/sup]...10[sup]14[/sup] J/kg, efficiency ~0.1%, radioactive waste ~99.9%. Reserves are limited. This fuel is ecologically and economically useless. The source of energy is the mass defect of the atomic nucleus, more accurately, nucleons in the atomic nucleus. III. Ideal fuel . Energy yield 10[sup]16[/sup]...10[sup]17[/sup] J/kg, efficiency up to 100%. There is no waste. The source of energy is matter and antimatter. The dependence, shown in Fig. 1, indicates that the further development of quantum thermal energetics should take place in the direction to producing ideal types of fuel. The efficiency of the energy cycle of this type of fuel should approach 100%. These ideal cycles are offered by binary fuel consisting of two components: matter and antimatter. At the moment, it is not simple to obtain 100% efficiency for the ideal fuel, but it has been established that the Usherenko effect is characterized by electron-positron cycles in which the energy yield in the experiment has already reached 10[sup]9[/sup]...10[sup]10[/sup] J/kg. This value is significantly higher than the energy output of chemical fuels. But this value is less than the energy yield of uranium fuel, taking into account that its energy yield is actually ~10[sup]12[/sup] J/kg. For example, when an RBMK-1000 nuclear reactor (Chernobyl) is fully loaded with 180 t of fuel only approximately 5 kg is ‘combusted’. The efficiency of application of nuclear fuel is only 0.003%, radioactive waste is 99.997%. We have a large reserve to realize the concept of ideal fuel. We have a lot of interesting work. The energy problem in the application of particles and antiparticles is not so much connected with the processes of their synthesis from the quantized space-time as with the guarantee of the output of excess energy. Excess energy cannot be produced under the external influence of gamma-quanta in the synthesis of electron-positron pairs. The expenditure on the creation of a power cycle does not exceed the energy generated as a result of annihilation. For this reason, in spite of the prospect for using antimatter as fuel, the realization of such cycles with the positive energy yield, when examined purely hypothetically, has no foundation for realization in practice. The discovery of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) created suitable conditions for using the internal energy of the SEI for the synthesis from the quantized space-time of the electron-positron plasma as a promising energy source. The clusters of electron-positron plasma can form only in interaction with matter when the spherical shell of the cluster is balanced by the pressure of matter inside the shell. Electron-positron plasma cannot form in vacuum. The alternating shells of nucleons, which include the electrical whole quarks of different polarity, form in vacuum. Some preliminary results of the experimental investigations of the clusters of electron-positron plasma are of definite interest even now despite the fact that these studies have not yet been finished. It was necessary to verify that clusters of electron–positron plasma form the superdeep penetration regime as a result of the deformation of the quantized space-time at the moment of the impact of the flow of particles-strikers on the solid target. Colossal accelerations and forces which excite the waves of elastic deformation inside the target in the direction of the impact of the flow of particles-strikers appear at the moment of impact, causing numerous lattice vibrations of the material of the steel target. In our experiments we detected different types of fluctuations in the target in the superdeep penetration regime with the aid of electromagnetic sensors of solenoid and toroidal types, at ultrasound or higher frequencies. A target was placed inside the solenoid or toroid with a winding. Resonance phenomena are possible if we consider the channel of the target and the target itself as elements of a cavity resonator for elastic deformation waves. In accordance with the theory of Superunification, the set of many physical deformation and wave factors at the moment of impact of particles-strikers with the target leads to the release of energy of superstrong electromagnetic interaction and subsequent shaping of the clusters of electron-positron plasma which burns the channel in the target, releasing the energy of superstrong electromagnetic interaction. The experimental detection of the spherical tracks of the clusters of electron-positron plasma was of special interest. Originally strange numerous spherical points with a diameter of the order of 1 mm were discovered on the x-ray film, placed next to the target. However, numerous spherical tracks with a diameter of the order of 1 mm were subsequently discovered also on the sections of a steel target after the effect on the target of the accelerated particles-strikers with the diameter of 100 mm and more. A change of the structure of the target material in the region of the spherical track is distinctly evident under the microscope. The shell of the sphere appears brighter and its internal content is dark. There is every reason to believe that the discovered spherical tracks are the tracks of the clusters of the electron-positron plasma, forecast originally by the theory of Superunification. No other explanation is available at the moment. It should be noted that the Usherenko effect discovered as early as in 1974, has been insufficiently the object of fundamental physics. The researchers lack the continuous particle accelerators of the micron size to speeds on the order of 1 km/s. It was necessary for us to construct such an accelerator. Certainly, there is still a very large amount of work to carry out from the first encouraging results for the release of energy in the Usherenko effect to real reactors (Fig. 2). Leonov V.S., Russian Federation patent No. 220 1625, A method of generation of energy and a reactor for this purpose, Bull. 9, 2003. This also concerns the cavitation effect when a long road must be travelled from the first positive results to their practical realization. It is important that the new effects of the release of energy have been discovered experimentally, whereas in the Tokamak-type installations the CTF reaction has not as yet been started. Our task is to draw the attention of the world scientific community to the new power cycles and to investment in projects in the area of new energy technologies. The results of experimental studies and tests of new energy apparatuses will be described in greater detail in the second volume of this book. It is important that a source of global energy in the form of the earlier unknown superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI), the carrier of which is the quantized space-time, has been discovered. Mastering of the new power cycles is the priority task of our civilization in solving the problems of the power supply of humanity. Perhaps in the Rossi effect we can see new energy cycle similar to the Usherenko effect cycles. This statement must prove the fundamental science. It should be noted that the design of the apparatus Rossi made a very simple. However, the effect Usherenko allows the use of any substance as an energy source.