We're having this problem too. We have a female that does this, and she's been through some trauma too. First, we got her at a shelter. But she was fine. Then, we moved to another apartment. Still fine. Then we got a male kitten. Still fine. Year later, moved to our house. After the first dat of truama, the exploring began and still fine. Then we got a dog. Still fine, for ahwile. A couple months later she began peeing just outside the box. So we took her to the vet thinking it was a bladder infection. Nope. Fine. But neurotic. He suggested anti-depressants!!! And also suggested a second box. Got the second box. Stopped for awhile. Then started again. Now, she has soaked through the 150-year-old floorboards and no amount of baking soda will soak up the stench. We've tried eveything. Rubber-backed bathmats, newspaper, even old showercurtain liners. She pees on it all, but always just outside the box. Now we have to rip up the boards and replace them. I love her to pieces, but I just don't understand why she's doing this. I mean, we've had the dog for over a year and she gets plenty of attention. And she has the other cat for company. Very frustrating. And smelly. Ick.