Anti-Jewish pogroms in the "Russian" Empire

Discussion in 'History' started by Litwin, Sep 27, 2018.

  1. Litwin
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    Litwin Silver Member

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    is there any chance in near future to see Anti-Jewish (anti- Ukrainian, anti- Caucasians) pogroms in the "Russian" Empire? many say that without Muscovite STATE SPONSORED antisemitism, Hitler ´D never come to power , do you agree? I do...


    "Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire (Russian; Hebrew: ha-sufot ba-negev; lit. "the storms in the South") were large-scale, targeted, and repeated anti-Jewish rioting that first began in the 19th century. Pogroms began occurring after the Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during 1791–1835. These territories were designated "the Pale of Settlement" by the Imperial Russian government, within which Jews were reluctantly permitted to live, and it was within them that the pogroms largely took place. Most Jews were forbidden from moving to other parts of the Empire, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion....The pogroms are generally thought to have been either organized or at least condoned by the authorities.[24][25][26][27] This view was challenged by Hans Rogger, I. Michael Aronson and John Klier, who couldn't find such sanctions documented in the state archives.[28][29] However, the antisemitic policy that was carried out from 1881 to 1917 made them possible. Official persecution and harassment of Jews influenced numerous antisemites to presume that their violence was legitimate, and this sentiment was reinforced by the active participation of a few high and many minor officials in fomenting attacks, as well as by the reluctance of the government to stop pogroms and to punish those responsible for them."
    Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire - Wikipedia

    Pogroms
    Further information: Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire
    A series of genocidal persecutions, or pogroms, against Jews took place in Russia. These arose from a variety of motivations, not all of them related to Christian antisemitism. They have been attributed in part to religiously motivated antisemitism arising from the canard that Jews were responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus.[9][10] The primary trigger of the pogroms, however, is considered to have been the assassination of Tsar Alexander II.[11]

    The first pogrom is often considered to be the 1821 anti-Jewish riots in Odessa (modern Ukraine) after the death of the Greek Orthodox patriarch in Constantinople, in which 14 Jews were killed.[12] The virtual Jewish encyclopedia claims that initiators of 1821 pogroms were the local Greeks that used to have a substantial diaspora in the port cities of what was known as Novorossiya.[13]

    Long-standing repressive policies and attitudes towards the Jews were intensified after the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on 13 March 1881. This event was wrongly[8] blamed on the Jews and sparked widespread Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, which lasted for three years, from 27 April 1881 to 1884.[14] A hardening of official attitudes under Tsar Alexander III and his ministers, resulted in the May Laws of 1882 which officially blamed Jews for the Tsar's death and severely restricted the civil rights of Jews within the Russian Empire, leading to harsh restrictions on Jewish land ownership, prohibitions of Jews living in villages, and limits on the number of Jews accepted into educational institutions.[8] The Russian imperial police strictly applied the anti-Semitic discriminatory laws, while the Russian media engaged in unrestrained anti-Semitic propaganda.[8] In 1891, all Jews were systematically expelled from Moscow.[8] These repressions embittered many Jews against Russian society, convincing many that Russia could no longer be their home.

    The Tsar's minister Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev stated the aim of the government with regard to the Jews was that "One third will die out, one third will leave the country and one third will be completely dissolved in the surrounding population".[14] In the event, the pogroms and the repressive legislation did indeed result in the mass emigration of Jews to western Europe and America. Between 1881 and the outbreak of the First World War, an estimated 2.5 million Jews left Russia - one of the largest group migrations in recorded history.[15]

    After the Pesach pogrom of 1903, pogroms became the official policy of the Russian Empire, and the anti-Semitic terror reached its peak in October 1905.[8]

    Forgery of the Protocols of Zion
    Further information: Protocols of Zion
    In 1903, Russian individuals forged the Protocols of Zion, a significant anti-Semitic document that played a decisive role in the global spread of Anti-Semitism throughout the 20th century.[8]

    Antisemitism in the Russian Empire - Wikipedia

     
  2. Litwin
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