A Leopold Trajectory

Discussion in 'Healthcare/Insurance/Govt Healthcare' started by badger2, Jan 24, 2018.

  1. badger2
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    badger2 Gold Member

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    Smokey the Bear Lied to You: Flaws in Existing Fire Management Strategies are Exposed by a Year of Unusually Extensive Wildfires in the West
    (Wisconsin Engineer Winter 2017, Volume 122, Number 1)

    We call it a Leopold trajectory because Leopold himself saw deeper connections. As with his desire to study grasses, we place an anti-cancer trajectory in New Mexico at the Aldo Leopold Wilderness. The grasses in question are associated with a microorganism that produces the chemistry that kills common cancers such as basal cell carcinoma, even as the deer and cattle graze away.

    More profoundly, basal cell carcinoma has the ability to fine-tune thyroid hormone processes inside the cell. A cancer that appears to be superficial is an illusion.
     
  2. badger2
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    badger2 Gold Member

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    'Fighting these megafires has led to the National Forest Service spending more than half of its entire annual budget on firefighting -- $2,4 billion -- in contrast to just 16 percent of its budget in 1995....Old forest species such as the spotted owl depend on dense understory canopies for their natural habitats and don't typically live in the more open forests which result from removing understory canopy and brush to help reduce megafires.'
    (Smokey the Bear Lied to You, op cit)

    'These were clues in an environmental mystery. The mystery, in Leopold's words, was " when, how, why and what kinds of brush constitute a fire hazard." The question; the Prescott, like the Gila, had suffered extensive fires that dry spring. Leopold ventured only a few speculations. He kept notes on the behavior of fires on the Prescott. He, Supervisor Wales, and Ranger Oldham performed experiments on the inflammability of the various brush species, but their tests did not yield much insight. "Inflammability of the Prescott (and probably other) brush fields," he concluded, "happens to be complex, and requires more refined methods for successful solution."

    To ascertain the factors involved, he advised the Prescott personnel to keep a careful record of the habits of the fires they fought. But there was a question behind the question, a mystery behind the mystery: when, how, and why had the vegetation cover of the forest changed so as to constitute a fire hazard in the first place, and what would the answers mean in terms of management strategies? As usual, Leopold had a theory:

    " In its virgin state, large parts of the brush type were probably thinner than now, with much more grass. Grass fires and grassroot competition kept the brush down, and the grass probably checked the wholesale spread of Manzanita through fire.....This virgin state was itself temporary, the soil or at least large areas of it, being forest soil, tending to come back to woodland whenever fires allowed. This accounts for the widespread occurrence of [scattered] Juniper stumps....The reappearance of woodland on a large scale, after removal of sod and grass fores....dovetails into this hypothesis....So do the various phenomena of erosion."

    Leopold admitted that his examination had been too superficial to substantiate this interpretation. It was nonetheless a remarkable first stab at an answer. He had focus in on ground fires and grazing as the fundamental factors influencing both the rate of erosion and the change in vegetation since settlement. The very process of settling the land had unwittingly exacerbated both the fire and the erosion problem. Leopold would bolster and refine his reasoning over the next two years, but the hardest step had already been taken. He had connected fire to grazing to vegetation change to erosion, and realized the need to study formally those connections.'
    (Meine C, Aldo Leopold:His Life and Work, p. 203)

    Variations on this fire theme accrue. Puma in California likely suffered a more intense susceptibility to feline immunodeficiency virus infection due the recent megafires.
     
  3. badger2
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    The anti-cancer connection to the Aldo Leopold Wilderness is the grass, Digitaria. Associated with this grass genus are members of the genus Azospirillum, in particular A. lipoferum, which produces aminolevulinic acid. Aminolevulinic acid kills basal cell carcinoma, so the project is to clarify just what assemblages are under the effects of grazing by cattle or any other ruminant.

    The origin of Pongola grass is interesting, since it links to Kwa-Zulu Natal, precisely fore the same (latitude) and locations of the Spondweni group viruses, of which Zika is a member. Since this is an interesting latitude as it relates to Zika at Palm Beach, Florida, Pongola grass was introduced into Florida in 1835. Digitaria occurs in New Mexico as well as in the Aldo Leopold Wilderness, though latitudes and altitudes differ.

    Thus one target healthcare grass for study is Arizona Cottontop, Digitaria californica, which also occurs in the southern regions of New Mexico, though it would be interesting to find it within Aldo Leopold Forest, which is in Albuquerque.

    Pubmed lists the Sprillum abstract, though this was before the name change, and is the original work of Dobereiner and Day (Washington State University, Pullman). This is also a Brazilian link, so Zika studies cannot be said to be fully understood:

    Sprillum-Digitaria
    Light microscopy observations of tetrazolium-reducing bacteria in the endorhizosphere of maize and other grasses in Brazil. - PubMed - NCBI

    Azospirillum lipoferum: at what latitude and longitude does it occur in New Mexico?
     
  4. badger2
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    badger2 Gold Member

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    Should read '1935.'
     
  5. badger2
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    Strange that Hillary Clinton, intimately linked to Arkansas rice and their accompanying mosquitoes, was kissing babies in Florida during the Zika event. From Zika origins in Kwa-Zulu, Digitaria eriantha, Pongola grass, is called "hungry rice."

    As far as is known, there are no studies linkinhg Zika-vectoring mosquitoes to Digitaria in Florida.

    1999 Influence of Synthetic Oviposition Pheromone and Volatiles from Soakage Pits and Grass Infusions Upon Oviposition Site-Selection of Culex Mosquitoes in Tanzania
    Influence of Synthetic Oviposition Pheromone and Volatiles from Soakage Pits and Grass Infusions Upon Oviposition Site-Selection of Culex Mosquitoes in Tanzania
    '....Grass infusion was prepared by cutting 2kg Digitaria into small pieces, soaking in 10 liters of unchlorinated tap water in a plastic bucket, and allowing fermentation for five days.'

    The reader can also retrieve "Digitaria....Mosquito Hollow" in New England, and some other links. Do Zika-vectoring mosquitoes suck Digitaria juices in Florida? How would these juices affect viral maintenance in the vector?
     
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    The Daily Cardinal, Spring Welcome Back Issue, 2018 Legislators Seek to Resurrect Conservation Corps to Tackle Higher Ed Affordability Crisis
    'A new bill could revitalize a dormant program from last century to create environmental conservation jobs for some of the nearly 70 percent of young people struggling with higher education costs and student debt in the state.

    The Wisconsin Conservation Corps would hire state residents between 16 and 25, half of whom must be high school students or graduates from families making no more than double the federal poverty level.

    These young people would then be put to work constructing and improving trails, restoring forests and prairies and stabilizing stream banks, among other projects, according to the text of the bill.

    Workers would be eligible for funds from Americorps, a federally funded network of domestic nonprofit organizations, which could be paid out in the form of tuition assistance, student loans or vocational training.
    ....
    State Sen. Robert Cowles, R-Green Bay, and state Rep. Jeff Mursau, R-Crivitz, have garnered several bipartisan sponsors seeking to revive the corps, which was eliminated by Democratic Governor Jim Doyle and GOP legislators in 2004 in an attempt to mitigate a $3.2 billion budget deficit.'

    The mental and physical benefits of the CCC have been mulled over by badger2 for the last several years, so it was refreshing to see this. Long ago, badger2 received a diploma from the North American School of Conservation, which was a mail-order course based in Long Beach, California.

    It is not the prestige of a certain institute but the little piece of paper signifying the completion of an intended goal, that makes for mental (and physical) health progress.
     
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    Having arrived at the Girl Scout Camp just above Cuba, New Mexico, badger2's work involved clearing trees away from the buildings that had survived the blizzard. Porcupines were in other trees, and elk came into camp in the evening to graze. The surrounding country produces that famed New Mexican enchantment of which golden memories are made.


    Civilian Conservation Corps
    Civilian Conservation Corps - Wikipedia
     
  10. MadChemist
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    What is the point you are trying to make ?
     

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