when Moscow (Golden Horde) returns all loot which they stolen from the European nations? " After the Soviet Union invaded Poland on September 17, 1939, it similarly engaged in the looting and destruction of the Polish cultural heritage. It is estimated that soon after the invasion, about half of Polish museums and similar public institutions were dismantled in the territories occupied by the Soviets. Many items were shipped to Soviet museums such as the Moscow Museum of History and the Central Anti-Religious Museum (also in Moscow). Other collections were simply done away with. For instance, during the liquidation of the Poland's Lwów Historical Museum in the early 1940, its holdings were transported to the basement of the Black (Czarna) Kamienica (pictured), away from public eye, and deliberately destroyed there. Following the Soviet advance across the German-occupied Polish lands, the looting and plunder of anything of value continued up to 1947 even though the looted territories were theoretically assigned to its own ally, the communist Poland already. The Soviet forces engaged in particularly extensive plunder in the former eastern territories of Germany that were to be transferred to Poland, stripping them of any piece of equipment left behind. Even the Polish Communists felt uneasy about the scope of their crimes. In 1945, the future Chairman of the Polish Council of State, Gen. Aleksander Zawadzki, worried that "raping and looting of the Soviet army would provoke a civil war" See also: Rape during the liberation of Poland The operations of these "war trophy brigades" were regulated by detailed orders issued by Soviet vice-minister of defence Nikolai Bulganin in early 1946. Until 1948 these brigades sent at least 239'000 freight cars to USSR transporting natural resources, complete factories and individual machines. Town of Bydgoszcz lost 30 complete factories and 250 ships, from Grudziądz the army confiscated all machinery from factories, regardless of their size. From Toruń all gristmills were taken, causing temporary deficit of bread. Blachownia Śląska lost a large, German-built synthetic fuel producing installation, transported to USSR on 10,000 train cars. A similar production line in Police was transported using 14,000 cars. Gliwice lost a pipe factory, Bobrek and Łabędy - iron furnaces. Complete power stations were taken from Miechowice, Zabrze, Zdzieszowice, Mikulczyce, Blachownia Śląska i Chełmsk Śląski. Smaller industries were also confiscated in Sosnowiec, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Częstochowa, Zgoda, Chorzów, Siemianowice, Poznań, Bydgoszcz, Grudziądz, Toruń, Inowrocław, Włocławek, Chojnice, Łódź, Dziedzice and Oświęcim. Farming animals were also significant target of looting: until 1 September 1945 the Red Army confiscated 506,000 cows, 114,000 sheep and 206,000 horses. In February 1945 alone over 72,000 tons of sugar was taken. In Toruń region alone 14,000 tons of grain, 20,000 of potatoes and 21,000 beetroots were taken during that period. These number represent looting alone, as the Polish government also supplied food to the Red Army officially at that time (150,000 tons of grains, 250,000 tons of potatoes, 25,000 tons of meat and 100,000 tons of straws). Individual Red Army soldiers were also allowed to send home "war trophies", with the weight depending on their rank, which resulted in widespread looting of private houses of anything valuable, including food, clothes, shoes, radios, jewelry, utensils, clothes, bicycles, and even ceramic toilet bowls. Scale of individual looting can be estimated by the example of Russian town of Kursk, which received only 300 personal parcels from soldiers in January 1945 but till May their number reached 87,000. After these transports were finished, the Red Army also started looting the train infrastructure itself—repair yards, signalling installations and the rails themselves: around 5,500 km of rails were looted. In 1946 the scale of looting was estimated by Polish authorities at 2.375 billions of 1938 dollars (equivalent of $54 billion in 2015 dollars)."