Is there a reason so many anti-American spies have been Jews? Category:American people convicted of spying for Israel - Wikipedia Pages in category "American people convicted of spying for Israel" The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). K Ben-Ami Kadish N Stewart Nozette P Jonathan Pollard Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954) is a former intelligence analyst for the United States government. In 1987, as part of a plea agreement, Pollard pleaded guilty to spying for and providing top-secret classified information to Israel. He was sentenced to life in prison for violations of the Espionage Act. Pollard is the only American who has received a life sentence for passing classified information to an ally of the U.S. In defense of his actions, Pollard declared that he committed espionage only because "the American intelligence establishment collectively endangered Israel's security by withholding crucial information". Israeli officials, American-Israeli activist groups, and some American politicians who saw his punishment as unfair lobbied continually for reduction or commutation of his sentence. The Israeli government acknowledged a portion of its role in Pollard's espionage in 1987, and issued a formal apology to the U.S., but did not admit to paying him until 1998. Over the course of his imprisonment, Israel made repeated unsuccessful attempts through both official and unofficial channels to secure his release. He was granted Israeli citizenship in 1995. Jonathan Pollard - Wikipedia Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were United States citizens who spied for the Soviet Union and were tried, convicted, and executed by the United States government. They were accused of transmitting nuclear weapon designs to the Soviet Union; at that time the United States was the only country with nuclear weapons. They were also accused of providing top-secret information about radar, sonar, and jet propulsion engines to the USSR. Other convicted co-conspirators were imprisoned, including Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, who supplied documents from Los Alamos to Julius and who served 10 years of a 15-year sentence; Harry Gold, who identified Greenglass and served 15 years in federal prison as the courier for Greenglass. Klaus Fuchs, a German scientist working in Los Alamos and handled by Gold, provided vastly more important information to the Soviets. He was convicted in Great Britain and served nine years and four months in prison. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg - Wikipedia Harry Gold (December 11, 1910 – August 28, 1972) was a laboratory chemist and spy for a number of Soviet spy rings operating in the United States during the Manhattan Project. Early life Gold was born Heinrich Golodnitskiy in Bern, Switzerland, to Russian Jewishimmigrants. On 13 July 1914, the family arrived at Ellis Island, New Yor Espionage In 1940, Jacob Golos activated Harry Gold for Soviet espionage, but he was not a recruited agent of the rezidentura. This changed in the late 1940s, when Soviet Case Officer Semyon Semenov appropriated Gold from Golos. Gold became a formally recruited Soviet agent at this time, and was assigned the codename GUS, GOS, or GOOSE. Semenov remained Gold's control officer until March 1944. In 1950, Klaus Fuchs was arrested in England and charged with espionage. Fuchs confessed that while working in the United States during World War II he had passed information about the atom bomb to the Soviet Union. Fuchs denied working with other spies, except for a courier who collected information from him. When initially shown photographs of suspects, including Gold, he failed to identify him as the courier, but did so after subsequent prompting. Under interrogation, Gold admitted that he had been involved in espionage since 1934 and had helped Fuchs pass information about the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union by way of Soviet General Consul Anatoli Yakovlev. Gold's confession led to the arrest of David Greenglass. His testimony resulted in the arrest, trial, and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. In 1951, Gold was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment. In May 1965, he was paroled after serving just under half of his sentence. In 1972, he died in Philadelphia, age 62; he was interred in Har Nebo Cemetery in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Harry Gold | Wikiwand See also References Further reading External links Soviet and Russian spies Authority control Categories (Redirected from Morris Cohen (Soviet spy)) Morris Cohen Morris Cohen on Russian stamp Born July 2, 1910 Harlem, New York City Died July 23, 1995 (aged 85) Moscow Nationality American Alma mater Columbia University Spouse(s) Lona Cohen Spying career Allegiance USSR Active 1939–1961 (arrest) Codename(s) Peter Kroger Morris Cohen (July 2, 1910 – June 23, 1995), also known by his alias Peter Kroger, was an American convicted of espionage for the Soviet Union. His wife Lonawas also an agent. Morris Cohen (spy) - Wikipedia Elizaveta 'Zoya' Yulyevna Zarubina (Russian: Елизавета Юлиевна Зарубина; 1 January 1900 – 14 May 1987), born Lisa Rozensweig, was a Soviet spy. She was known as Elizabeth Zubilin while serving in the United States, and also known as Lisa Gorskaya. Born in Rzhaventsy (Bessarabia) of Jewish background, Elizabeth Zarubina - Wikipedia Early years Victor Perlo was born May 15, 1912 in East Elmhurst, Queens county, New York. Perlo was the son of ethnic Jewish parents who had both emigrated in their youth to America from the Russian empire. His father, Samuel Perlo, was a lawyer and his mother, Rachel Perlo, was a teacher. Perlo Espionage career A dedicated Communist, Victor Perlo allegedly headed the Perlo group of Soviet espionage agents in the United States. Before World War II, Perlo had been a member of the Ware spy ring. The Perlo ring included several important U.S. officials, including a Senate staff director, and the ring supplied the Soviet Union with economic, political, and military intelligence, including United States aircraft production figures. Perlo infiltrated through the United States Department of Commerce in 1938 to gather economic intelligence, and passed on intelligence concerning basic economic decisions he presented to Harry Hopkins, Secretary of Commerce. He transferred to the Division of Monetary Research, and served under Harry Dexter White, followed by Frank Coe and Harold Glasser, all of whom were later found to be Soviet agents. Victor Perlo - Wikipedia Nathan Gregory Silvermaster (November 27, 1898 – October 7, 1964), an economist with the United States War Production Board (WPB) during World War II, was the head of a large ring of Communist spies in the U.S. government. It is from him that the FBI Silvermaster File , documenting the Bureau's investigation into Communist penetration of the Federal government during the 1930s and 1940s, takes its name. His wife, Helen and stepson, Anatole Volkov, were members of his ring. He was identified as a Soviet agent in the WPB operating under the code names Pel, Pal, “Paul” in the Venona decrypts; and as “Robert” both in Venona and independently by defecting Soviet intelligence courier Elizabeth Bentley. Background Silvermaster was born to a Jewish family in Odessa, Russia (present-day Odessa, Ukraine) Nathan Gregory Silvermaster - Wikipedia William Weisband was born in Egypt on 28th August, 1908. His Jewish parents had been born in Russia. He emigrated to the United States and joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). In 1934 he was recruited by the NKVD (codename Zhora) and ordered not to have any contact with known members of the party. Weisband became a U.S. citizen in 1938. (1) Weisband joined the United States Armyduring the Second World War and in 1942 he was employed by United States Army's Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) in North Africa. Weisband had an excellent understanding of the Russian language and was used to help with translation work. William Weisband Allan Robert Rosenberg (April 21, 1909 – April 1, 1991) was a 20th-century American attorney and civil servant, accused as a Soviet spy by Elizabeth Bentley and listed under Party name "Roy, code names "Roza" in the VENONA Papers and code name "Sid" in the Vasilliev Papers. Ware Group Nathan Witt had succeeded Harold Ware as leader of the underground Ware Group of Soviet spies upon Ware's death in 1935, while Whittaker Chambers oversaw the group and couriered Government documents it obtained from Washington to New York. Allan Rosenberg (spy) - Wikipedia Charles Krevisky (later known as Charles Kramer), the son of Russian-Jewish parents, was born on 14th December, 1906. Charles Kramer: Soviet Spy In 1935 Charles Kramer was appointed on the staff of the National Youth Administration. The following year he joined the staff of the LaFollette Subcommittee of the Senate on Civil Liberties. Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) has pointed out that Kramer was the head of a Soviet spy network (codename Mole later changed to Lot). (7) According to Christina SheltonKramer's wife was also a Soviet spy. (8) Whittaker Chambers began to privately question the policies of Joseph Stalin. So also did his friend and fellow spy, Juliet Poyntz. In 1936 she spent time in Moscow and was deeply shocked by the purge that was taking place of senior Bolsheviks. Unconvinced by the Show Trials she returned to the United States as a critic of the rule of Joseph Stalin. As fellow member, Benjamin Gitlow, pointed out: "She (Juliet Poyntz) saw how men and women with whom she had worked, men and women she knew were loyal to the Soviet Union and to Stalin, were sent to their doom." (9) Chambers asked Boris Bykov what had happened to Poyntz. He replied: "Gone with the wind". Chambers commented: "Brutality stirred something in him that at its mere mention came loping to the surface like a dog to a whistle. It was as close to pleasure as I ever saw him come. Otherwise, instead of showing pleasure, he gloated. He was incapable of joy, but he had moments of mean exultation. He was just as incapable of sorrow, though he felt disappointed and chagrin. He was vengeful and malicious. He would bribe or bargain, but spontaneous kindness or generosity seemed never to cross his mind. They were beyond the range of his feeling. In others he despised them as weaknesses." (10) As a result of this conversation, Chambers decided to stop working for the Communist Party of the United States. Charles Kramer A child of Russian-Jewish immigrants, Magdoff grew up in the Bronx. In 1929, at age 15, Magdoff first started reading Karl Marx when he picked up a copy of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in a used-book store. "It blew my mind," recalled Magdoff in 2003. "His view of history was a revelation....that got me started reading about economics. We were going into the Depression then and I wanted to figure out what it all meant." 1 His interest in Marx led him to embrace socialism. Main article: Harry Magdoff and espionage Wikisource has original text related to this article: Venona 687 KGB New York to Moscow, 13 May 1944, Perlo group Magdoff has been accused by a number of authors as having been complicit in Soviet espionage activity during his time in US government. He was accused of passing information to Soviet intelligence networks in the United States, primarily through what the FBI called the "Perlo Group." Magdoff was never indicted, but after the end of the Cold War, a number of scholars have inspected declassified documents (including those of the Venona project) from U.S. and Soviet archives. They cite these documents to support the claim that Magdoff was involved in espionage. Other authors have taken issue with some of the broader interpretations of such materials which implicate many Americans in espionage for the Soviet Union, and the allegation that Harry Magdoff was an information source for the Soviets is disputed by several academics and historians asserting that Magdoff probably had no malicious intentions and committed no crimes. Harry Magdoff - Wikipedia Harold Glasser was born in Chicago on 24th November, 1905. His Jewish parents had emigrated from Lithuania. After the death of his father in 1909 the family lived a life of extreme poverty. Despite his circumstances, Glasser managed to study economics at the University of Chicago and Harvard University (1929-1930). This was followed by a year at the Brookings Institution. Glasser joined the Communist Party of the United States in 1933. (1) On 31st July 1948, Elizabeth Bentley appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committeeand during her testimony named several people she believed had been Soviet spies while working for the United States government. This included Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, Harold Glasser, Henry Hill Collins, Frank Coe, Charles Kramer and Lauchlin Currie. As the authors of The Secret World of American Communism (1995) have pointed out: "Edward Fitzgerald, Harold Glasser, Charles Kramer, Victor Perlo, Magdoff, Wheeler, and Tenney were called by congressional committees to testify about Bentley's charges. All refused to answer, citing their right under the Fifth Amendment not to give testimony that might incriminate themselves." (7) Harold Glasser died on 16th November, 1992. Harold Glasser The third of four children, Oggins was born 1898 in Willimantic, Connecticut, the son of Simon M. Oggins and his wife Rena, both Jewish immigrants from the Abolnik shtetl near Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania. Oggins's parents arrived in New York in 1888. Soviet underground espionage As of August 26, 1926, when he applied for his U.S. passport, Oggins had joined the Soviet underground and was readying for his first overseas assignment, probably in Germany and France. In April 1928, Nerma applied for her first U.S. passport. The couple departed from New York on May 5, 1928, for a villa in the Zehlendorf district of Berlin, Germany, their job was to maintain a low profile and inhabit their residence, so that other Soviet agents could periodically use it as a safe house for various espionage related activities. To accomplish this mission, Cy and Nerma had to avoid any appearance of being interested in Communist politics; they had to avoid even reading Communist newspapers. Friend Sidney Hook spotted Oggins in the Gendarmenmarkt, as described in his autobiography Out of Step (1984). Oggins had to resist the temptation to have meetings with his old friend, although he did not always resist this temptation fully. The Ogginses moved from Berlin to Paris in the Spring of 1930; in Neuilly-sur-Seine, they watched White Russians, Trotskyites including Trotsky's Paris-based son, Lev Sedov, and the family of Michael Feodorovich Romanov. After exposure l'affaire Switz (1933-1934, involving Robert Gordon Switz, Lydia Stahl, and Arvid Jacobson), the Ogginses left Paris (September 1934) and returned to the States with their young son Robin (b. 1931). After a brief stint in New York, they left for San Francisco. Leaving his wife and child behind, Cy Oggins set off for China in September 1935—never to return to the United States. In Shanghai, Oggins reported to Grace and Manny Granich (brother of Mike Gold); in 1936, he worked in Dairen during the Manchukuo and traveled to Harbin. He reported to Charles Emile Martin (AKA George Wilmer, Lorenz, Laurenz, Dubois—born Matus Steinberg of Belgorod-Dnestrovsky) and wife Elsa Marie Martin (AKA Joanna Wilmer, Lora, Laura). (Martin later served in the Red Orchestra, spying on Nazi Germany.) By October 1937, the Martins and Oggins fled separately after Chiang Kai-shek attacked Manchuria in July. Oggins met his wife and son in Paris in February 1938, only to leave again in May. Nerma Berman Oggins left Paris with their son in September 1939 and returned to New York. Detention, arrest, imprisonment, and death On February 20, 1939, the Soviet NKVD arrested Oggins at the Hotel Moskva and took him to the Lubyanka, accusing him of being a traitor. His case received a hearing on January 5, 1940. Ten days later, he received a sentence of eight years. On the next day, Oggins shipped out to Norillag where fellow inmates included Jacques Rossi, he became known there as "The Professor." Nerma Berman Oggins requested the U.S. Department of State to investigate her husband's disappearance, on December 8, 1942, Oggins received visits from American diplomats at the Butyrka prison in Moscow. By May 1943, the Soviets reneged on his release. In May 1947, Oggins was sentenced to death because Stalin feared that if the spy were repatriated to the United States, as the US government had requested, he would defect and reveal Soviet secrets. By mid-summer, Oggins was taken to Laboratory Number One (the "Kamera"), where Grigory Mairanovsky injected him with the poison curare, which takes 10–15 minutes to kill. Isaiah Oggins - Wikipedia Yakov Naumovich Reizen was born April 24, 1889, in Ekaterinoslav, Russian Empire, now Dnipropetrovsk in Ukraine, to a Jewish family. Yakov's father worked as a shop assistant. In addition to Yakov, the Reizen family included two more brothers and three sisters. Real name (the entry in the register, Holy Trinity Church in the city of Ekaterinoslav) Jacob Naumovich Golosenko. Espionage activity Golos settled once more in New York City, this time in the borough of the Bronx, working as the business manager of Novyi Mir (New World), the Communist Party's Russian-language newspaper, based in New York City. Included in Golos' activities was coordination of the CPUSA's operation producing false passports for party members wanting to travel abroad. Golos remained in charge of the passport operation until turning the job over to Hungarian party functionary J. Peters, who also served as a link with the Soviet intelligence in 1930s; according to Peters' biographer  the transfer took place in 1932. In the spring of 1930, Golos became involved in the Communist Party's "machinery of investigations," charged with keeping tabs with the activities of a number of labor unions and party-affiliated mass organizations. Golos seems to have begun working for the secret intelligence apparatus of the Soviet Union by this time, as it was in 1930 that his name first begins to appear in archival documents as a "reliable man." According to archival notes taken in the early 1990s by a former KGB foreign intelligence officer and journalist Alexander Vassiliev, Golos' initial contact seems to have been with the GPU's New York station chief, Chivin ("Smith"). Another interpretation of the documents, favored by historian Svetlana Chervonnaya, argues that first contact was made by Abram Einhorn ("Taras"), a Soviet intelligence agent who worked in the United States from 1930 to 1934. Regardless of who brought him into the fold, it is clear that by the early 1930s, Golos was in the employ of Soviet intelligence. By the start of 1933, Golos was heading the Communist Party's World Tourists venture, an operation served as a source of funds for various CPUSA activities. Golos was active in the acquisition and supply of American naturalization papers and birth certificates, which were used to obtain American passports to "legalize" Soviet intelligence agents around the world — initially in Europe and Asia but later in the Americas as well. In order to convert these fraudulent application papers into authentic passports, Golos worked closely with a clerk in the Brooklyn passport office with a gambling addiction. During this period Golos was identified by his Soviet intelligence handlers with the code name "Sound" — a pun on his adopted surname of Golos, the Russian word for "voice." Throughout the 1930s Golos sat as a member of the CPUSA's Central Control Commission, a body in charge of party discipline, background investigations, and audits. This position placed Golos in an enviable position to assist in the recruitment and verification of potential agents on behalf of Soviet intelligence. As head of World Tourists, Golos visited the Soviet Union every year from 1932 onwards to attend the celebrations of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This coincidentally gave him an opportunity to bring his Russian-born wife and American-born son there in 1936, so that his son could receive "a Soviet education." In 1937, the pair entered into the Soviet citizenship. The last of these visits took place in 1937, during the height of the Ezhovshchina — the mass campaign of secret police terror in which millions of Soviet citizens suspected of political disloyalty, espionage, or economic crime were arrested and hundreds of thousands executed, with millions more sent to the brutal labor camps of the Gulag. Upon his return in January 1938, Golos confirmed at a session of the governing Political Committee of the American Communist Party that there was indeed a mass secret police operation in effect in the USSR. Golos' faith in the communist cause seems to have remained unshaken in the aftermath. Vassiliev's notes revealed that in late 1940, Golos recruited Ernest Hemingway with the code name: "Argo" who had offered to work covertly for the soviets. From 1940 onwards Golos was subjected to the Foreign Agent Registration Act and while he didn't curtail his NKVD activities he had to assume he was under FBI surveillance. Moscow became nervous at the risk of him being arrested and made attempts to convince him to return to Russia. Worried that if he returned to Russia he would be jailed or killed Golos not only refused to share his sources with other NKVD officers he also told them that he had hidden a sealed envelope containing details of Russia's spy operations in America. In 1941, Golos had set up a commercial forwarding enterprise, called the U.S. Shipping and Service Corporation, with Elizabeth Bentley, his assistant, courier and lover, as one of its officers. The pair occupied a suite in the Commodore Hotel, in New York City, across the street from Amtorg. In 1942, Golos transferred a Communist cell of engineers headed by Julius Rosenberg into the direct contact with Soviet intelligence operatives in New York. The cell provided information on newest developments in electrical and radio engineering to the XY Line of the NKGB foreign intelligence. The XY Line began efforts to penetrate the Manhattan Project, code-named ENORMOUS (ENORMOZ). Jacob Golos - Wikipedia Alexander Ulanovsky - Wikipedia Born to a Jewish family in Chişinău, (Bessarabia), as Izrail Khaykelevich Ulanovsky, he joined the anarchists as a young man. In 1907, his family moved to Kerch (Crimea). Arrested for radical activity, he was deported to Siberia, where he was confined to the same village as Joseph Stalin. While in exile, he made a daring escape and "on his way out" entered Stalin's flat and took his fur coat, as was customary among fellow-exiles in such a situation. Espionage America Together with his wife Nadezhda, Ulanovsky came to America on the maiden voyage of the SS Bremen in 1931. His mission was to take over the GRU (military intelligence) apparatus assembled by his predecessor, Manfred Stern, who was moving on to China. Some of the known members of the group were Lydia Stahl, Robert Gordon Switz, Leon Minster, Robert Osman, Joshua Tamer, and Whittaker Chambers. In his memoirs, Witness, Chambers provided an insider's view of the workings of the apparatus and a deferential portrait of Ulanovsky, whom he called "the only Russian who was ever to become my close friend."  The spy Hede Massing also knew Ulanovsky at this time under the alias "William Joseph Berman" ("Bill Berman"—also "Felik" and "the Long Man"). In her memoirs, she picked up on his anarchist tendencies without understanding where they came from. Thus, she describes him as a "nice enough man," a "simple man," and "one of the least ambitious and offensive" Russian agents she ever knew, but also "confused and inept." When Massing mentions that Ulanovsky had told her he was not her boss and that they were "both waiting for the boss", she implies that he ranked closely to her. However, Ulanovsky meant not that "the" (their) boss but that "her" boss was coming (Valentin Markin). Despite all this, she notes, "But one thing he did know expertly: This was conspiracy." The group's principal activity was securing patent applications, blueprints, and technical manuals which they would pack into a large crate and ship to the Soviet Union. Ulanovsky returned to Europe after the failure of several GRU operations, notably a bungled scheme to counterfeit U.S. currency and the arrest of Robert Osman in Panama on espionage charges. An NKVD illegal, Valentin Markin, came to America and took control of GRU operations in 1934.