Much has been made of the fact that much of the Arctic studies has been funded by various governments. The implications being that this indicates a 'One World Conspriracy' or resurgence of 'Commies'. Yet, the most effective series of studies was put into motion and funded by an American venture capitalist. Gary Comer founded Land's End, a wildly successful direct mail clothing empire. He was also a transoceanic sailor, and in 2001, without the services of a government icebreaker, sailed the Northwest Passage. His was the first private venture to do the Passage in a single season. Not ony that, but he did the passage in sixteen days and eight hours. Comer recognized that something in the Arctic was changing very quickly when he could do in just over a fortnight what had taken 3 years to do a century ago. Comer a short time later sold Land' End and began visiting scientists to try to understand what he had observed. At Philip Conkling's suggestion, Comer contacted Wallace Broecker at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Together they founded the Comer Fellows Progarm in Adrupt Climate Change Research. Comer invested tens of millions of dollars in this program, recruiting many scientists involved in this field of study. During the summers of 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006, Comer's ship, the Turmoil, made voyages of study to the Arctic. Much of what we understand of the Arctic came from these voyages. Gary Comer was extroidinerly successful as a businessman, and wonderfully successful in expanding our knowledge.