It's actually pretty simple. There is a cultural convergence between people who tend to live in densely-populated urban areas and people to lean Left politically. Academics, people who work for government, artistes, people who rely heavily on government support and people who believe in Big Government, unionists, homosexuals, and feminists, all, for one reason or another, gravitate to urban centers. Everyone else - and I won't categorize them - tends to move to the suburbs, or they originate from rural areas or small towns, and remain there for life. So when it comes time to carve up congressional districts, the urban areas end up being 80% Democrat, while the suburban and rural areas tend to be 60% Republican. Maxine Waters wins with 90% of the vote, while her rural Republican counterpart out in the sticks wins with 55% of the vote. At the end of the day, there are more Republican representatives than there are Democrat representatives (both Federal and State), even though more than half of the voters voted Democrat. There is NOTHING that the Supreme Court CAN do or WILL do to change this. If they try, then the Federal courts will spend the first four years of every decade trying to rationalize how the congressional districts SHOULD HAVE been carved up...and it won't make a damn bit of difference. Don't you just love it?