http://econc10.bu.edu/economic_systems/NatIdentity/FSU/Caucasus/khazaria.htm "As to where the Khazars disappeared has been subject of much speculation it is commonly believed that the majority of the Khazarian Jews migrated to Poland, Lithuania, Hungary and the Balkans. In these countries appeared large concentrations of Jews. In Poland and Lithuania appeared shtetls, country towns of mostly Jewish population perhaps representing the missing link between market towns of Khazaria and Jewish settlements in Eastern Europe. Also in common between Khazarian and Polish Jewry are manners of dress and diet. The accounts are few and imprecise due to lack of records. What is clear is that the same factors that drove Jews to Khazaria from the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim lands must have doubtless drove them to Eastern Europe as well. Jews were already present in eastern Europe though were largely augmented by the Khazar migration. The Khazarian Empire thus fell, its fate similar to many empires before its time. Its hand in history is great, as the evolution of civilization could have been greatly altered had Khazaria not held back forces intent on destroying each other, the same forces eventually responsible for destroying it. Its story is remarkable, unfortunately not widely known. Nathan Ausubel, a Jewish historian, summed it up best when he stated OF all the astonishing experiences of the widely dispersed Jewish people none was more extraordinary than that concerning the Khazars (Brook, p.1)." read the whole thing.