Sitting back to take in the whole forest I would conclude the following. There is little debating the fact that the city of New Haven found themselves between a rock and a hard place and no matter what they did, they were likely to have a lawsuit on their hands. The only difference is that if they certified the exams and promoted accordingly, they would have successfully defended this decision against any legal challenge. They went to painstaking lengths to do everything required specifically to withstand any such allegations. This is the part that puzzles me. They had to know this beforehand. Yet they still chose to go with screwing the white guys, aware of the fact that it was the more legally risky choice. Perhaps they wanted to avoid the media frenzy and Al Sharpton soup-boxing that would have accompanied the right choice. I'm not really sure what that says about us, but I don't think I like it.