"Eight years of Democratic rule were followed by twelve of Republican ascendancy under three inept Presidents - Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover. Yet Hoover and Coolidge were good men and the former had elements of greatness. Their failure to cope with difficult problems must be shared with their party, which until 1931 controlled both houses of Congress; the GOP, like the aristocrats who returned to power in France after the fall of Napoleon, had "forgotten nothing and learned nothing". Progressive Republicans, having been piped away by Theodore Roosevelt into the Bull Moose wilderness, had to struggle back on their knees, if at all; for the party was now in the hands of conservatives and reactionaries. They, in general, regarded the Demoratic interlude of 1913-21 as abnormal, the war which Wilson had led them into as a failure, and his New Freedom an unnecessary obstruction to free enterprise. Hoover's favorite cliche, "The American system of rugged individualism," VP Coolidge's epigram, "The business of America is business" and Harding's election slogan, a return to "Normalcy", expressed their views. The Harding-Coolidge plurality of 61% seemed a clear mandate for isolation in foreign policy, favoring big business in domestic policy, and government keeping hands off individuals no matter how rugged." The above is quoted verbatim from The Oxford History of the American People (published in 1965 by Oxford University Press, by Samuel Eliot Morison). The Chapter begins on page 918 and covers the period from 1921-1933. Those supporting "conservative and reactionary" policies today might well do with reading this or other history books written before 1980, given the power of the Ministers of Truth who cut and paste new version of history daily on this and other forums.