Ok. I guess this is where I was supposed to do this ... The following is an 'open' letter to cosmologists, astrophysicists, or any other science-minded individual. Tear it apart. And Good Luck .... I am writing to you because the science community does not make allowances for innovation, or insights from a layperson. ( non-theist version ) It's not my desire to annoy you, or waste your time. But it is my hope that in the spirit of open-mindedness, you might take a few minutes to read the following. It seems impossible to separate ego ( I have a big one, too ) and beliefs from an objective view of the universe. Having read a great deal about black holes, I am struck not by the consensus of opinion, but the lack of one. It fascinates me that the less someone knows about these structures the more authoritative they sound. I realize that my theory on black holes flies in the face of mainstream science, and undoubtedly your 'beliefs' too. Perhaps you have already traveled this road and found it desolate. If so, my apologies. I first proposed this on 1/26/09. It is short, and self-explanatory. Pinkerton Theoretical Cosmological Model Of The Universe 1/26/09 The Theory: 1. The visible/local universe has a finite amount of mass. 2. Black holes have a finite critical mass limit. 3. That limit is exactly equal to the total mass ( matter + energy ) in the visible/local universe. The Process: 1. Black holes convert all matter/energy into sub-elemental hydrogen for uniform 'stacking'. 2. Black holes do not appear to be subject to normal laws of space ( rotational speed limits, inertia ) 3. Black holes ( to our knowledge ) currently merge at velocities 'tethered' by the rotational force and tidal forces of the satellite galaxy, or even just a single stellar companion. 4. Over eons of time black holes will grow in mass/gravity. 5. Although some escapes temporarily through x-ray/gamma ray bursts ( and possibly through Hawking Radiation ) they continue to grow in mass/gravity. 6. Eventually unencumbered by the rotational/tidal force of orbiting galaxies, black holes could theoretically achieve near infinite velocities. Therefore significantly speeding up the merging process and 'chasing down' gravitational sources at velocities far out-pacing the expansion of space. 7. As the mass/gravity grows so does it's rotational speed, and potential velocity as it seeks other sources of gravitons. 8. The strain on space ( ripple effect ) increases with the growing mass. 9. As our visible/local universe nears the end of it's life cycle, only one black hole remains, containing nearly all the mass in the visible/local universe ( still within upper mass limits predicted by physicists ) 10. At this trigger point, all remaining space containing matter/energy collapses into the black hole. 11. When the last sub-atomic particle reaches the point of singularity, critical mass is achieved. 12. The Big Bang. 13. Space 'snaps' back to near-uniformity taking hydrogen/microwave/x-ray/gamma ray radiation with it. 14. Space immediately begins to cool, and star/galaxy formation begins. The Logic: 1. All things in the physical universe have a critical mass point. Except, so far, black holes. 2. I believe theoretical physics currently allows for such a process, and observations are beginning to bear out this reality. 3. At the time calculations were made regarding upper-mass limits, black holes were mere theoretical oddities, and even Einstein argued against the possibility of their actual existence in physical space. 4. Though we have never seen a black hole reach critical mass, that in no way suggests they don't. 5. The visible/local universe has yet to reach infancy compared to it's expected life span. It is premature to assume on such small evidence that the current expansion will go on forever. The Evidence/Proof: 1. The laws of physics, quantum mechanics. 2. The observations, predictions and experiments providing adequate proof/accuracy of those laws. 3. The current chemical/radiological composition of the visible universe. 4. The current ( and upwardly mobile ) estimated mass of the visible/local universe now approaching the numbers derived for black hole upper-mass limits. 5. Recent observations of black holes merging or set to merge. 6. The recent acceptance that all galaxies have black holes, or super-massive black holes at their core. 7. The recent observations detecting more galaxies gravitationally bound to ours, and Andromeda. 8. No evidence to support the recent hypothesis that black holes are limited to 50 billion sols. 9. No evidence of black holes showing appreciable loss of mass over time. 10. No evidence that black holes 'shunt' mass anywhere else. 11. No evidence of branes, strings, 5th through 11 dimensions, etc. 12. Closed-loop obeys all laws of thermo-dynamics/entropy. 13. Not affected by hypothetical dark matter/energy. Predictions: 1. Black holes in excess of 50 billion sols will be discovered through the latest and soon to come optical/radio telescopes. 2. Every new discovery will fit within the parameters of this model. 3. This cycle will repeat endlessly. In Conclusion: 1. This model answers the question of the observed chemical/radiological composition of the visible/local universe. 2. This model provides for 100% recycling of all matter/energy in the visible/local universe. 3. This model explains where the big bang got it's mass. 4. This model appears to violate no known laws. 5. This model requires no 'new' laws to function. 6. This model is vastly superior to all flawed existing, and previous models. 7. It still leaves the question "How did it begin?" to future theorists. It is also my theory, however, that per Einstein's Uniformity of Space math ( born out by observations ), the universe is indeed infinite. That black holes are simply 'borrowed' energy from the fabric of space. That dark energy is not a force that 'acts' upon space but rather a 'property' of space. This process/cycle is akin to the sub-atomic particles that 'materialize' and are instantly annihilated by anti-particles ... but on a much larger scale. And I also suggest that this process is going on throughout infinity, and has been eternally. The distance between black holes would be equivalent to the distance between the 'materializing' particles. If the loop was not closed, then we would get photons from outside our universe leaking ( over eternity ) here into our universe. And of course if the loop was not closed ... meaning if even a single photon were allowed to escape, the 'next' black hole would be one photon short of critical mass. I don't think space allows this to happen. Logic tells me that if this theory is incorrect, then the universe did in fact have a beginning. And therefore it can not be either infinite, or eternal. That there really is nothing beyond the bubble of our expanding visible universe. That there was some metaphysical reason ( ie: God ) since it truly would have had to spring into existence from 'nothing' ... because there was no space with it's inherent energy to 'borrow' from. I think there is sufficient evidence in Einstein's math to safely conclude this is not a possiblity. The 'lines' of space would not have an 'endpoint'. It is possible that my supposition of black hole inertia-less velocities will not be born out by future observations, however this would not stop the process. Instead, it would merely slow it down. No matter how far space 'expands' the last black hole standing would warp space sufficiently to pull back any remaining mass/energy. Reasonable logic tells me that if a 'big bang' could simply materialize from 'nothing' ( and sans God ) then that same process could happen at any time, at any location. Such as two seconds from now inside the Moon's orbit. That would appear ( so far, anyway ) not to be the case. There must be a process. A function that allows matter to exist, if only temporarily. Logically, it took all the energy from our universe to create our universe. I hope this didn't take too much of your time. Thank you for your attention. James Pinkerton Copyright 2009 James Pinkerton After Galileo's conviction for heresy ... and his subsequent sentencing ... As he was being led away, he was credited with uttering these words under his breath ..... "But they move. They move!" As I am being led away I will quietly utter these words ..... "But they merge. They merge!"