1. While the Bible may or may not be absolutely historically accurate, it does serve, by far, as the best account extant of some historical periods. Case in point, the Exodus. Is there any doubt that a slave population, the Jews, were present in large numbers in Egypt sometime during the second millennium BC? a. It is accepted that they came in conflict with their Egyptian masters, and fled in the exodus, led by a man they called Moses. b. But there is no Egyptian account of any such exodus. On the other hand, it wasnt anywhere near as significant for the Egyptians as it was for the Jews merely the flight of a group of slaves. 2. A clue of the veracity of the tale can be found in Genesis, in which Joseph brings the Hebrews to Egypt. It is more than passing interesting that chariots are mentioned, not once or twice, but three times in Josephs story. And the Egyptians didnt have chariots before the Eighteenth Dynasty, which means that Jews cannot have arrived in Egypt before the mid-sixteenth century, BC. a. Genesis 41:43; 46:29; and 50:9. BibleGateway - Quick search: chariot 3. The Merneptah Stele records a victory over the tribe of Israel in Canaan, so the Exodus must have taken place by the time it was inscribed, which was around 1225 BC. Merneptah Stele - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 4. Therefore, we have a timeframe of 1550 to 1225 BC, or sometime during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 5. The Ptolemys commissioned Manetho, a high priest, to write a history of Egypt, and his King List is the basis for our understanding of the ancient dynastic structure. Osarseph - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia a. Manetho used the records at the temple of Amun in Heliopolis. 6. Manetho identified a man called Osarseph, high priest to the pharaoh Amenhotep, as the biblical Moses. a. It seems that Osarseph built up a following among outcasts and lepers, a following so large that the gods came to Amenhotep, and ordered him to drive Osarseph from Egypt. b. But Osarseph drove Amenhotep out instead, establishing a 13-year reign before he was expelled! 7. Still clues, but nothing definitive: exodus of the slaves, someone named Osarseph, and a Pharoah Amenhotep. 8. There were four Amenhoteps during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Manetho says that this one had a son called Ramesses .but this was a Nineteenth Dynasty name, so Manetho was clearly referring to one of the later Amenhoteps, not an earlier one. 9. The thirteen-year reign is a problem, because there is no record of a Pharaoh Osarseph, or any Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh, ruling for 13 years. a. There are several candidates, though. Ay and Horemheb: neither was of royal birth, one being a vizier, the other a general, before ascending. Ay reigned for four years, and Horemhems 19 years were fairly orthodox and prosperous. b. Smenkhkare lasted only a few months, and Tutankhamun died a youngster. So, none of those fit. c. One possibility is left: Akhenaten. He succeeded his father, Amenhotep the Third. 10. Now, while Akhenaten ruled for 17 years, something different happened during his fifth year: he changed his name, and founded a new capital city of Akhetaten .now known as Amarna. He ruled at Amarna from 1345 to 1332. Thirteen years. Akhenaten - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 11. But in what view would Akhenaten be an interloper, not belonging? The answer is monotheism: a belief in one God. This sets him apart from all the other pharaohs. There was only Aten: the sun disk. a. Akhenaten closed the temples of the other gods, particularly Amun. He had Amuns name exorcised form monuments all over Egypt. b. Amenhotep married Tiye, the daughter of Yusef- Yuya (Joseph). It was decreed however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne,there was a general fear that the Israelite relatives were gaining too much power in Egypt . Because of his part Israelite upbringing, Amenhotep IV couldn't accept the Egyptian dieties and developed the notion of Aten - an omnipotent god with no image, represented by a solar disk with downward rays. Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaten (Glorious spirit of the Aten) and closed all the temples of the Egyptian Gods making himself very unpopular. Was Moses an Egyptian Pharoah?: Ahmed Osman Believes the Biblical Story Describes Akhenaten | Suite101.com 12. Now, as for the name Moses. Does it make sense that an Egyptian princess would take an adopted child and apply a Hebrew name meaning drawn out. c. The name Moses derives from the Egyptian word mose, meaning "offspring" or "heir", as in Tuthmose: "born of Thoth". Was Moses an Egyptian Pharoah?: Ahmed Osman Believes the Biblical Story Describes Akhenaten | Suite101.com So....Moses, an Egyptian pharoah....Israel descended from Egyptians. Could be?