Crisis #14 "Thomas Paine Writes Again" Chapter 22: Abraham Lincoln

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    Crisis #14

    Chapter 22

    Slavery is the absolute subjugation of one person to another in servitude and obedience; the victim has no free will. The practice has been in existence since prehistoric times. People become the property of others through birth, capture, purchase or any other means forced on them. The inkling to enslave others seems to be entrenched in the psyche of many humans, almost as if there has never been a time without it.

    Slavery has occurred in all cultures and countries around the world. Although it became more obvious when humans adopted farming methods of subsistence, slave labor existed well before then. In ancient Egypt, Babylon, India, Greece, Rome, and China, slave labor was used to cultivate lands and to meet the demand of the upper classes for personal servants. Prisoners taken in wars were sometimes forced into slavery. Children and adults were sold in slavery for defaulting on debts. Others were tricked into being slaves, sold for punishment, spite, or just plain greed. Slavery soared during Portuguese, Spanish and British imperialism from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The untold, horrendous suffering of slaves shows the darkest side of human nature. It is dehumanizing to enslave another person, yet many of the upper class and those involved with this inhuman crime took a different view of it!

    Slavery was imposed on the American people by the British. Under British law, African slaves were deemed to be property and viewed as sub-human. From the 17th to the 19th centuries, slavery became an enormously profitable business in the American South due to the agricultural economy. Millions of Africans were kidnapped and forcibly transported to the Americas to be sold as slaves, especially to work on cotton plantations in both North and South America. The inhumane conditions of the transportation process killed or sickened many, whilst numerous others died being used as work animals. The cotton boom was one of the main motivators for expanding the slave population. Slave masters encouraged or forced their slaves to reproduce at a high rate, using them like baby factories to meet the demands of free labor in America. Some of the masters participated in the reproduction of slave babies; slaves were also used by their masters and mistresses as bed-warmers. Like the indigenous people of Australia and elsewhere, these slaves were not good enough for the upper classes and the whites, but they were certainly good enough to be used as convenient sex objects!

    Slave masters and mistresses all over the world seemed to have their own universal methods of abusing slaves although they were separated by vast geographical distance. They treated their slaves in the same manner. In one form or another, slavery exists in any society where the class system is accepted as a way of life. Sadly, slavery still exists today in many parts of the world, often under various disguises.

    Until 1776, the American colonies were bound by the British monarchs and their Parliaments, who legalized and enforced the slave trade and the practice of slavery. The trading of humans in slavery is no different from trading cattle, sheep or swine. It represents the trough of human ethics. The filthy institution was forced on American colonists by the British, with those who opposed it having little or no voice at all.

    The same people who drove the American and the French Revolutions were abolitionists. Paine, Franklin, Jefferson and Lafayette were abolitionists. Jefferson was in the ironic position of being a slaveholder himself through inheriting them from his father and father-in-law. He sought to release his slaves, but, under the laws and circumstances of the time, there was no way to free them – they would just have been caught up in the system that was in place and forced to serve new masters.

    On March 8, 1775, Paine published African Slavery in America, condemning the practice. Parts of that essay appear below:

    “That some desperate wretches should be willing to steal and enslave men by violence and murder for gain, is rather lamentable than strange... By such wicked and inhuman ways the English are said to enslave towards one hundred thousand yearly; of which thirty thousand are supposed to die by barbarous treatment in the first year; besides all that are slain in the unnatural ways excited to take them... Most shocking of all is alleging the sacred scriptures to favour this wicked practice... Man-stealing is ranked with enormous crimes... Too many nations enslaved the prisoners they took in war. But to go to nations with whom there is no war, who have no way provoked, without farther design of conquest, purely to catch inoffensive people, like wild beasts, for slaves, is an height of outrage against humanity and justice, that seems left by heathen nations to be practised by pretended Christian... So monstrous is the making and keeping them slaves at all, abstracted from the barbarous usage they suffer, and the many evils attending the practice; as selling husbands away from wives, children from parents, and from each other, in violation of sacred and natural ties; and opening the way for adulteries, incests, and many shocking consequences... If the slavery of the parents be unjust, much more is their children's...”

    In the draft of the Declaration of Independence that Jefferson presented to Congress, he emphatically denounced slavery, stating: “He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.” Congress redacted Jefferson's anti-slavery language from the Declaration of Independence. Franklin abhorred bondage of any type, but especially “perpetual Bondage,” and he urged the “American People” to discourage “every Species of Traffick in the Persons of our fellow men.”1 The State of Pennsylvania tried to gradually abolish slavery in 1780. After the first war with Britain ended, while the nation was still operating under the Articles of Confederation, the United States Congress outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude in the territory covered by the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787.

    There have been many arguments put forward to justify the superseding of the Articles of Confederation by the Constitution, but one very glaring reason is because certain vested interests wanted to perpetuate slavery in the United States. Obviously, Great Britain was keen to have America remain as a slave nation for its own financial gain. Even though George III was thwarted in 1783, he continued to plot for the retrieval of America back into the British fold and to keep the lucrative slave trade operating. The British had immense influence regarding the nature and design of the Constitution, which was drafted in secret while Congress was enacting the Northwest Ordinance. While the Declaration of Independence was silent on the issue of slavery because the Congress redacted Jefferson's proposed abolition of it, the Constitution formally legalized the institution of slavery! Slavery was legal – it was embedded in the foundation of all American laws by its insertion into the Constitution. This shows British meddling in the secret meetings that resulted in the Constitution being drafted. British meddling in American affairs through its agents continues to this day.

    The 1787 Constitution not only authorized slavery, it blatantly protected it for certain vested interests. The following excerpts show how those parties protected the abominable institution:

    “No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due. U.S. Const., Art. IV, Sec. 2.

    The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. U.S. Const., Art I, Sec. 9.”

    The Constitution forced every state to respect and follow the slavery laws of another state, and to return any slaves to their state of origin if any should escape and seek sanctuary in another state. Further, the Constitution specifically protected slave trading in states until the year 1808, which was 20 years after the drafting of the document. The pro-slavery stance should be kept in mind while reading the Preamble to the Constitution:

    “We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

    A “more perfect union” assuredly did not include “the blessings of liberty” for the slaves who held their inhuman status in the nation, and their lot was cast upon their offspring into perpetuity. The Constitution – the highest law of the land – mandated protection of the institution of slavery. It would take a constitutional amendment to change this miserable situation, and to get the amendment, it would take a civil war.

    Thus, the foundation appears to have been laid for the War Between the States in 1787 by all those who gathered for secret meetings in Philadelphia and decided to totally reject the Articles of Confederation, and to construct a brand new foundation for all the laws of the nation – the Constitution. It is important to look deeper in order to expose the force behind the implementation of slavery. In 1858, Abraham Lincoln addressed the conspiracy to promote and maintain slavery on the American continent. In his famous House Divided Speech, Lincoln urged people to “trace the evidences of design and concert of action among its chief architects, from the beginning.” Lincoln knew there was a conspiracy; he had absolute proof of it.

    Lincoln was well aware that the roots of the conspiracy to enslave people went much further back than the 1787 Constitutional convention. It certainly predated American independence from Britain; the British monarchs had imposed slavery on American soil since the 17th century. European monarchs practiced what was a universal institution. It is as prevalent in history as prostitution, which is said to be the oldest “profession” in the world.

    Slavery simultaneously existed in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe and the Americas long before the Roman Empire conquered parts of the British Isles. There is a nefarious force present on the planet that drove people to exploit and enslave others mercilessly. As Dr. William Blair aptly stated in his 2006 essay, Extremists at the Gate, “...something as horrible as slavery can, in its own context and time, appear to the oppressors as natural, desirable, and worth defending, even to the ones who are not yet the direct beneficiaries.”2

    Slavery had so gradually influenced and prejudiced the minds of the population, and so numbed their sensitivity, to the point of their accepting, and, in extreme cases, defending it. This is akin to people getting used to certain ideas over time. The exposure, association and interaction with a behavior, product, concept, service or fashion becomes “normal.” In the same way, people become used to the idea that destruction and killing during wars is acceptable and honorable, that is, that it is “normal.” In America, because Britain had imposed slavery on the continent nearly two centuries before the new nation was formed, it had become a “normal” way of life. Besides, the upper classes had become used to the comfort and convenience of having servants and slaves to wait on them. Unfortunately, the “haves” still lord over the “have-nots!”

    The British have a long history of subjugating and exploiting people in foreign lands. During the reign of Queen Victoria, the United Kingdom occupied and controlled a quarter of the world's land and population. They accomplished this through commerce, banking, conquests, bribery, threats, drugs and intrigues. It has been their practice to take over ports, localities, regions, nations and even continents. Whatever country they conquer, they systematically strip the inhabitants of their resources. When an area was sparsely populated or inhabited by indigenous people, such as in North America, New Zealand and Australia, they slaughtered, subjugated, abused and completely conquered the territory, and converted the indigenous people into third-class, sub-human occupiers of the land. Britain was not alone in this. France, Spain, Holland and Denmark were some of Europe's culprits. Let us not forget that Britain was controlled and ruled by the Hanover Electors from the time of George I forward. In other words, northern European royals were, and are, directing the United Kingdom.

    Britain had a vested interest in keeping slavery alive in America, even after the Revolutionary War. This caused the United States to suffer many intrigues and wars from Britain both during and after its fight for independence. The Benedict Arnold conspiracy, Aaron Burr conspiracy, British impressment of American seamen, sponsorship of privately-owned national banks, War of 1812, and the force behind the Civil War against the Union are some examples of this. The British were behind the design and concert to which Lincoln referred throughout his lifelong battle against slavery.

    It was easy to see that slavery was a divisive issue. What was not so obvious was that each time abolitionists gained some ground, there were forces at work to undo the efforts. Pennsylvania's attempt at gradual emancipation went nowhere. When the Congress was deadlocked on the issue of whether to admit Missouri as a state, the solution was to grant Maine admission as a free state, admit Missouri as a slave state, with the territory of the Louisiana Purchase reserved as free territory in the compromise. That compromise was undone by the pro-slavery plotters. The debates were hot and furious at times, and there was civil unrest over the issue of slavery. A relatively small number of rich slaveholders were able to keep things going forward on behalf of slavery, and it was very possible that slavery was on the brink of overtaking the entire nation through cunning political maneuvers and daring designs.

    Today, whenever anyone claims that there is a conspiracy afoot, they are ridiculed and labeled as a “conspiracy theorist”. The scorning of those who see conspiracies is very prevalent. It is now to the point that people are leery of asserting that there are conspiracies in governments, nations or regions. Intrigues and plots are rampant in history; through the ages there have been political conspiracies working for the advancement of some at the expense of others. Today, these things have not changed.

    To disregard these political conspiracies or to scoff at them is to disregard the human condition. However, some conspiracies can be so involved and secretive that they are very difficult to expose. Just because a conspiracy is complicated and difficult to discover and reveal is no reason to give in to skeptical mockers. There was a deep conspiracy to spread slavery throughout the United States that carried on from the inception of the nation. The most obvious principal in this conspiracy is the United Kingdom – that is the party most desirous of stirring discontent in America. Abraham Lincoln realized there was a conspiracy to adulterate the entire nation with slavery, and as he began unraveling it, the principal conspirators became very concerned.

    As already stated, Britain had an extraordinary interest in keeping the institution of slavery viable in America. The American slave trade was profitable; the issue of slavery was a festering wound in the United States that was very divisive politically; and slavery made American liberty appear hypocritical. It provided cheap labor so American imports would be relatively inexpensive to appease English merchants and citizens. It kept the institution legally operating in a large Western nation, thus giving the whole class distinction/white supremacy argument a sanctioned haven. Further, having the institution operating in America infected the citizens of that country with class structure superiority attitudes and all that comes with such a situation.

    Hence, Britain had a vested interest in slavery in America. It was a powerful tool the country used to meddle in American affairs. Foremost, it would provide a pathway to return the United States to the United Kingdom. Therefore, Britain supported the expansion of slavery into American territories, and sponsored those who pursued the policies of infesting all of the land with slavery. It was another aspect of their tested and effective “divide and conquer” technique.

    As more and more territory became havens for slavery, the remaining free states would eventually be forced to accept the policy in their states too. By manipulation of the Congresses and Presidents, they guided the expansion of slavery across the land. Of course, they had the Supreme Court under control from 1801 until 1835 with John Marshall as Chief Justice. They also got a follow-up Chief Justice, Marshall's successor, Roger Taney, who sat in that position until 1864. Thus, the British had influence and control over the American judiciary for a period of 64 years with just two appointments. While Jefferson was able to discourage lifetime Presidents by only serving two terms, the British penchant for lifetime positions took root in the American Judicial branch of government, and thoroughly corrupted the spirit of liberty.

    With this state of affairs spreading across the nation, and the United States in dire danger of being either swallowed up into a whole nation that legalized slavery or being severed in two, Abraham Lincoln made his run for the Presidency. It is not too strong a statement to say that the future of American liberty rested on his shoulders. If Britain could quash American liberty, it could stomp it out around the globe. But, fortunately, Lincoln was up to the challenge.

    Lincoln grew up believing in liberty. He was a passionate champion of freedom who became discouraged as he saw the appalling contradiction of having slavery in a free nation. He saw that through laws and policies, slavery was expanding. What was difficult for Lincoln to grasp was the devious cunning of those who sponsored and promoted slavery. Slowly, he came to the realization that they would stop at nothing in pursuit of their designs.

    As Lincoln was honing in on the conspiracy behind the determination to infest all of America with slavery, he addressed the Illinois Republican Convention in 1858 with his House Divided Speech. He pointed out that all the efforts to reduce the impact of slavery in the United States were met with a stronger force to expand the practice. Lincoln declared that “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” He stated his belief in the continuation of the government, and argued that if it were to survive, the nation would have to be either all pro-slavery or all free. There was no middle ground.

    Lincoln pointed out four prominent figures involved in a devious plan to make the entire country a slave nation. He said that although more than half of the states excluded slavery from their constitutions, and although most of the national territory that had not been organized into states had a congressional prohibition against slavery, a huge battle had occurred in Congress, with the pro-slavery representatives succeeding in removing the prohibition against slavery in the unorganized American territories.

    Lincoln showed conclusively in that speech that Senator Stephen Douglas, a Northerner with aspirations for the Presidency, had conspired with others to secure the Southern vote by pandering to influential pro-slavery people. Lincoln laid out the proof and made the astonishing claim that it was Douglas who had led the charge in the Congress to put through legislation that would allow the western territories to become slave regions, even though on the surface its true purpose was not apparent. It was the outgoing President, Franklin Pierce, who had conspired with Douglas to corrupt the western areas with slavery.

    The conspiracy darkened further, bringing in the incoming President, James Buchanan. Lincoln pointed out that Douglas surreptitiously planted the slavery expansion in the Nebraska doctrine and left it hanging. Few, if any, suspected how deviously it was done. The two Presidents aforementioned were critical to the plot. As the presidential election approached in 1856, Buchanan deferred interpretation of the constitutional question of territorial slavery to the Supreme Court, which was considering the Dred Scott case. The Court delayed its decision, using various excuses, until after Buchanan had won the election without taking a public stand on how he felt about the issue. In the back rooms of the Supreme Court, Buchanan was working on the Justice from his home state of Pennsylvania to support the decision to support slavery. After Buchanan was sworn in as President, the Supreme Court Chief Justice, Roger Taney, delivered his opinion on the Dred Scott case, ruling that slaves were property, incapable of becoming citizens.

    With the Dred Scott decision, the knockout blow was struck on behalf of bringing slavery to the territories. It was a putrid conspiracy to circumvent the wishes of the people and impose the institution throughout the country, executed through intrigue, guile and concerted action. Lincoln pointed out that the conspiracy involved the Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches of government. That is, the whole of the government was corrupt. Lincoln understood that the conspiracy was based in Europe. At this time, he was unaware that Queen Victoria was directly involved. However, he did know that she was ruthless, devious and untrustworthy. Among her ugliest acts was to physically force Indian-produced opium down the throats of the Chinese to get them addicted and weaken their will.

    To get the full flavor of what Lincoln presented, his House Divided Speech is attached in the appendix of this work. Lincoln boldly accused two Presidents, much of the Congress and the Supreme Court of being in league to circumvent liberty by using nearly invisible designs and intrigues. The rogues have not changed their ways. Although Lincoln was able to convince the people of the conspiracy in 1858, he would have a much more difficult time doing so today. The principal conspirators have so thoroughly corrupted governments, media, schools, professions and the like that even the mention of the term “conspiracy” raises eyebrows and causes people to mock. The rent-a-crowd mentality has taken control so absolutely that people cannot openly discuss conspiracies without being ridiculed. The proof of the conspiracies becomes irrelevant when people have closed their minds to reality.

    Lincoln fought with all his energy to hold the American nation together and to rid it of slavery. When a block of Southern states seceded from the Union, Britain finally had its conspiracy in full swing. Earlier efforts to divide the States had failed. Benedict Arnold was caught in the act, preserving the fledgling nation. John Adams tried sending the country back to Britain, but he was ousted by the people. Adams did succeed in putting Marshall in as Chief Justice, who worked the Constitution to the point that the country was ripe for the picking through the Dred Scott case. Aaron Burr was thwarted as he tried to steal the Presidency from Jefferson, and the nation was again preserved. Burr murdered Alexander Hamilton to protect George III from being found out as a principal conspirator. Then, Burr tried to sever the nation, with half for the British and half for himself to lead. The British used force against America in 1812. Britain had employed many different strategies and tactics against America since 1776, and, in 1860, just two weeks after Lincoln was elected President, South Carolina seceded from the Union, capping the British plans to bring America back into the fold; the conspiracy was alarmingly close to completion.

    It is worth noting that the British did not support every secession effort by various states. It was assumed by many of the framers of the nation that states could secede from the Union under the Constitution. Most thought that if the national government were to become too overbearing on state interests and individual liberties, states could secede from the contract that unified them into a nation. Jefferson had suggested that Virginia secede in 1826 because the federal government had encroached on so many of the rights of its citizens. This method of secession would not have benefited the British, and probably would not have caused Lincoln to strenuously hold the nation together, because it would have led to a new block of states with liberty interests at their foundation. Britain's goal was, and remains, to quash liberty. South Carolina's secession in 1860 was just the type of secession to suit Queen Victoria's plans.

    Several states followed South Carolina, seceding before Lincoln was sworn in as President. By this time, Lincoln knew that Britain was the moving party behind the slavery conspiracy and the Southern states' secessions. He tried to appease the seceding states, explaining in his First Inaugural Address that he had “no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists.” He further said that he believed that he had “no lawful right to do so.”

    In the address, Lincoln acknowledged that slavery was lawful, and that, under the rule of law, it was legal, regardless of how immoral and despicable he believed it to be. He declared that slavery was lawful, that the Constitution expressly required that fugitive slaves be delivered up to their owners, and that he would adhere to the Constitution.

    Further along in the speech, without mentioning the country by name, Lincoln implicitly sounded a warning to the British, who, as explained earlier, had worked so hard to assure that the Constitution specifically allowed for slavery. They had further conspired to have their agent, John Marshall, usurp the interpretation of the Constitution for the judiciary. Thereafter, they conspired to have Chief Justice Taney delay the Dred Scott decision to assist Senator Douglas, President Pierce and President Buchanan in their work in converting all of America into a slave nation under the Constitution.

    Lincoln went on to assure the people that he would follow the Constitution, and sounded another implicit warning to the unnamed conspiracy, headed by Queen Victoria. He said that in the 72 years since the first President took office, the nation had faced many perils and acquitted itself well. Lincoln then identified that he faced a “great and particular difficulty. A disruption of the Federal Union heretofore only menaced, is now formidably attempted.” It was here that Lincoln showed the British his hand, as he most ironically employed the same Constitution in whose crafting they had meddled, and whose interpretation they had usurped, declaring:

    “I hold, that in contemplation of universal law, and of the Constitution, the Union of these States is perpetual. Perpetuity is implied, if not expressed, in the fundamental law of all national governments. It is safe to assert that no government proper, ever had a provision in its organic law for its own termination. Continue to execute all the express provisions of our national Constitution, and the Union will endure forever – it being impossible to destroy it, except by some action not provided for in the instrument itself.

    Again, if the United States be not a government proper, but an association of States in the nature of contract merely, can it, as a contract, be peaceably unmade, by less than all the parties who made it? One party to a contract may violate it – break it, so to speak; but does it not require all to lawfully rescind it?”

    Lincoln implicitly said to the unnamed British monarch, whilst expressly stating to her fellow conspirators, that they were in violation of the Constitution, because it formed a perpetual union from which no party could remove itself without unanimous agreement of all parties to the contract. He also served notice on Chief Justice Taney that he would not be intimidated by Marshall's usurpation or future Supreme Court decisions claiming that the Court had the exclusive and final say on whether matters were constitutional or not. Lincoln used specific language, and he knew exactly the import of that language, when he said, “I hold.” This is the same as saying he deemed, judged or adjudicated, as the President of the United States, that the compact amongst the several states to form a Union required unanimous consent to rescind. Lincoln went on to declare that:

    “... no State, upon its own mere motion, can lawfully get out of the Union, – that resolves and ordinances to that effect are legally void; and that acts of violence, within any State or States, against the authority of the United States, are insurrectionary or revolutionary, according to the circumstances.”

    Lincoln then implied that his interpretation of the Constitution was better founded than the Supreme Court's. Lincoln explained that if the Court were deciding an issue between parties only and made an error, it would only affect those parties and be of little consequence to the rest of the nation. He said that to have the cases extend beyond the one before the Court would be the same as resigning “government, into the hands of that eminent tribunal.”

    Lincoln also stated that he would most solemnly “preserve, protect and defend” the nation and the Constitution. He closed by addressing the seceding states, imploring them to avoid civil war, and adding that “We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.” Lincoln knew that the Southern states had been duped by Britain, and it was not the Southerners who were the enemies, but the British government.

    His pleas for peace were not accepted by the rebels. Five weeks after Lincoln became the 16th President, the newly formed Confederate States of America attacked Fort Sumner, and the American Civil War began. Lincoln prosecuted the war knowing that he was really at war with Britain, but that few could understand that the British had so intricately devised and designed the conflict over decades of intrigues, bribes and other surreptitious and overt acts. He warned the British not to intervene on behalf of the South because they were insurrectionists and revolutionaries.

    Britain backed down from its desire to openly support the South, which it had, incidentally, sponsored to secede. Britain did not feel it could justify supporting the side that Lincoln had so skillfully labeled as insurrectionist. A month after the hostilities commenced between the North and South, the British issued a proclamation of neutrality. Six months later, the British mail steamer Trent was stopped by a Union vessel, and Confederate commissioners to France and Britain were removed, which tested British neutrality. Lincoln knew that Britain was anything but neutral, and that it was only giving the pretense of being so.

    At various stages of the Civil War, relations with Great Britain were so abysmal that the Union and the United Kingdom were brought to the verge of war. This would have suited Lincoln, who knew that the Union was fighting the British under the cloak of the South, even though most of the Southerners had no idea this was occurring. This is a tactic that Britain uses even today, having the United States fight its battles for it, even though very few Americans realize this to be the case. In late 1862, the British Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, was prepared to remove the cloak of secrecy and formally recognize the Confederate States of America because it looked as if the South would win. This idea was surrendered when the North took decisive victories later, so Britain remained the silent prosecutor of the American Civil War.

    During the war, Britain built warships for the Confederate States, including the CSS Sumter, Florida, Georgia and Alabama. This affront led to the British being forced to pay reparations of over $15 million after the war.3 On New Year's Day, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and ordered and declared “that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free.” Eleven months later, at the battlefield in Gettysburg, he made his immortal speech:

    “Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

    Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate – we cannot consecrate – we cannot hallow – this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

    In March of 1865, in Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, with the war nearly completed and victory assured for the Union, he stated:

    “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”

    Lincoln sincerely meant these words. He would have repaired the nation's wounds from the horrific war and welcomed the Southern states into the Union as equal partners. He knew that the Confederate States of America had been duped by Britain to secede from the Union. He knew that there had been a horrible conspiracy afoot that drew in at least two Presidents, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Senator Douglas and many more, and that the principal of the conspiracy had been Great Britain, which he was about to disclose to the American people. But, the British could not allow this information to get out, so they employed John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated the man most capable of healing the nation. Yet, Lincoln did not die in vain. The Constitution was amended, and America, after more than two centuries of enduring the putrid institution, finally abolished slavery.

    1Petition from the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery (1790).

    2Struggle for a Vast Future, Osprey Publishing, Ltd., Oxford, 2006.

    3Struggle for a Vast Future, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 2006

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