"Rail integrated communities in Tokyo," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, vol 5, no. 1 (Spring 2012), pp. 19-32, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.v5i1.280. In reference to Tokyo's private railway lines: The report talks about Tokyo's private rail systems that employ what are known as "rail-integrated communities." The concept involves developing communities around each of the major rail stations, walkable, mixed-use central zones with a heavy commercial/retail almost mall-like/urban "vibrancy." This is the type of setting that turns riders into customers. It is an interesting private-rail model that U.S. rail companies might one day adopt as a guide toward producing a profitable private or quasi-public rail-transit system.