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The Roman Invention Of "Palestine"

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Old 03-26-2012, 09:37 AM
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The Roman Invention Of "Palestine"

Where did the Palestinians come from? Are they descendants of the biblical Canaanites? Why are they constantly at war with the Israelis? Is “Palestine” the original and proper name of the Holy Land? Here are the answers to these and other vital questions.

The name Palestine encompasses the ancient Holy Land and the modern nation of Israel. But it is not the original name for that country. The Romans assigned this name about the second century A.D.

To appreciate the pressure brought upon the Jews in Judea and Jerusalem during this time, some background is necessary.

A Jewish revolt occurred just before A.D. 70, when the Romans sacked Jerusalem after a bitter siege. The revolt was caused by ongoing provocations by the Roman occupation forces. Roman officials continually stole valuables from Jewish priests, demanding ransom for their return. They plundered the temple and looted the priests’ ornamental garments—along with other sacred treasures. This surpassed the breaking point, and the inevitable revolt began

The survivors of the A.D. 70 revolt were subjected to similar provocations that led to another revolt in A.D. 132. The Romans prevailed again, and the revolt ended in A.D. 135. The Roman Emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) punished the surviving Jews.

He renamed Jerusalem after himself and the god Jupiter Capitolinus—Aelia Capitolina. He then imposed the death penalty on any Jew who would enter the city.

Some historians feel that this period was most likely the time that the Romans renamed Judea as Palestina (or Palestine). Others believe the change occurred about a century or so later, after Constantine established the eastern (Byzantine) part of the Roman Empire. Notice: “Till the period of the Roman occupation it [the Mid-East area later designated as “Palestine”] was subdivided into independent provinces or kingdoms…but never united under one collective designation. The extension of the name of Palestine beyond the limits of Philistia proper is not older than the Byzantine Period” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. 20, p. 601).

So, the Roman term “Palestine” came into existence well after Scripture had been written and canonized. The term “Aelia Capitolina” did not last for Jerusalem, but “Palestine” became a more permanent name for the region including and surrounding Judea. Understandably, the Jews who have lived there since then have rejected that name

Some believe that Israel today was once called Palestine millennia ago. The word Palestine does not occur in the original Hebrew or Greek Bible texts. The Hebrew term Pelesheth, which refers to the land of the ancient Philistines—Philistia—is erroneously translated in the King James Version as “Palestina” in Exodus 15:14 and in Isaiah 14:29 and 31, and as “Palestine” in Joel 3:4. The New King James Version correctly reads “Philistia”—the land of the Philistines—in every case noted above.

The Bible does not use the term “Palestine” or “Palestinians” to designate any geographic location or people. Nor does the historian Josephus ever use these terms in his major works, Antiquities of the Jews and Wars of the Jews. These relatively recent terms cannot change history—much less Scripture.

In the New Testament, other terms denote the territories of that region. For example, in Luke 1:5, Herod (the Great) is King of Judea. In Luke 3:1, we find other references: Pontius Pilate, governor of Judea; Herod (Antipas), Tetrarch of Galilee; Philip, Tetrarch of Ituraea (northeast of Judea); and Lysancas, Tetrarch of Abilene (near Ituraea). Notice that there is no “king,” “governor” or “tetrarch” of Palestine found anywhere in Scripture—more proof that “Palestine” was not an ancient term.

Ownership of the territory is another controversial issue. The Palestinians claim to be the ancient owners of Palestine. Yet we see that they only took possession of the land in the wake of the Turkish campaign through that region in about the tenth century A.D. The claim made by ancient Israel precedes this claim by about 2,300 years.

How ironic that these Palestinians accuse the Jews of depriving them of their home when (1) the vast majority of them moved to Israel after the Jews reclaimed the land from desolation and ruin, and (2) their Arab relatives in the world of Islam own over 1,000 times more real estate than exists within the boundaries of tiny Israel. Remember when thousands of Palestinians were expelled from Kuwait in 1991 after they were found conspiring with the Iraqis in selling out their host country?

The following scriptures show how the true Owner of this and all land everywhere expressed this “land transfer”: “And the Lord gave unto Israel all the land which He swore to give unto their fathers; and they possessed it, and dwelt therein. And the Lord gave them rest round about, according to all that He swore unto their fathers: and there stood not a man of all their enemies before them; the Lord delivered all their enemies into their hand. There failed not ought of any good thing which the Lord had spoken unto the house of Israel; all came to pass” (Josh. 21:43-45).

Joshua 24:13 covers more details: “And I [the Lord] have given you a land for which you did not labor, and cities which you built not, and you dwell in them; of the vineyards and oliveyards which you planted not do you eat.”

Palestine and the Palestinians
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Old 03-26-2012, 10:12 AM
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Well thanks for giving David C. Pack's opinion, whats your own?
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Old 03-26-2012, 10:15 AM
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Biblical Historian and Scholar Dr. Paula Fredriksen, Professor of Religion, Boston University; Ph.D, History of Religion, Princeton University; Diploma in Theology, Oxford University
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The Judean revolt against Rome was led by [Jewish rebel] Bar Kochba in 132-135 CE. The immediate causes of this rebellion are obscure. Its result was not: [Roman Emperor] Hadrian crushed the revolt and banned Jews from Judea.

The Romans now designated this territory by a political neologism, "Palestine" [a Latin form of "Philistine"], in a deliberate effort to denationalize Jewish/Judean territory. And, finally, Hadrian eradicated Jewish Jerusalem, erecting upon its ruins a new pagan city, Aelia Capitolina.
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The Roman response to the Jewish revolt against Rome was massive. Hadrian's wrath knew no bounds. He even sought to erase the Jewish People from world memory, changing the name of their country from Judaea to Syria Palaestina.

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Old 03-26-2012, 10:18 AM
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Thanks for giving Paula's opinion, is she jewish?
Paula Fredriksen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 03-26-2012, 10:39 AM
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Biblical Historian and Scholar Dr. Paula Fredriksen, Professor of Religion, Boston University; Ph.D, History of Religion, Princeton University; Diploma in Theology, Oxford University
Quote:
The Judean revolt against Rome was led by [Jewish rebel] Bar Kochba in 132-135 CE. The immediate causes of this rebellion are obscure. Its result was not: [Roman Emperor] Hadrian crushed the revolt and banned Jews from Judea.

The Romans now designated this territory by a political neologism, "Palestine" [a Latin form of "Philistine"], in a deliberate effort to denationalize Jewish/Judean territory. And, finally, Hadrian eradicated Jewish Jerusalem, erecting upon its ruins a new pagan city, Aelia Capitolina.
Random House | Page not found
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Specializing in the history of early Christianity, Paula Fredriksen is author of two books and over a dozen articles on early Christianity. Among her numerous awards and honors are a National Endowment for the Humanities grant for University Professors and a Lady Davis Visiting Professorship of Ancient Christianity at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Her second book, From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus, received the Yale Press Governors' Award for Best Book in 1988. Fredriksen holds a Ph.D. in history of religions, ancient christianity, and Greco-Roman religions from Princeton University and a theology diploma from Oxford University. She served as historical consultant for the BBC production The Lives of Jesus and was a featured speaker and historical consultant for U.S. News and World Report's "The Life and Times of Jesus."
Biographies | From Jesus To Christ - The First Christians | FRONTLINE | PBS
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The Roman response to the Jewish revolt against Rome was massive. Hadrian's wrath knew no bounds. He even sought to erase the Jewish People from world memory, changing the name of their country from Judaea to Syria Palaestina.

Last edited by JStone; 03-26-2012 at 10:41 AM.
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Old 03-26-2012, 10:42 AM
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So the Palestinians are Italian?
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Old 03-26-2012, 10:46 AM
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So the Palestinians are Italian?
Would you like an espresso with your falafel, Abu?
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Old 03-26-2012, 11:37 AM
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So the Palestinians are Italian?
Would you like an espresso with your falafel, Abu?
Yes, can I also have some chicken shawarma with my garlic bread?
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Old 03-26-2012, 11:41 AM
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Quote: Originally Posted by High_Gravity View Post
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So the Palestinians are Italian?
Would you like an espresso with your falafel, Abu?
Yes, can I also have some chicken shawarma with my garlic bread?
Abu, don't go suicide car bombing in your shiny, new Fiat allahu akbar.

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Old 03-26-2012, 11:44 AM
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Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post
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Would you like an espresso with your falafel, Abu?
Yes, can I also have some chicken shawarma with my garlic bread?
Abu, don't go suicide car bombing in your shiny, new Fiat allahu akbar.
Is it ok if I go gym/tanning/laundry before I go to mosque?
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Old 03-26-2012, 11:48 AM
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Quote: Originally Posted by High_Gravity View Post
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Yes, can I also have some chicken shawarma with my garlic bread?
Abu, don't go suicide car bombing in your shiny, new Fiat allahu akbar.
Is it ok if I go gym/tanning/laundry before I go to mosque?
Yes, Abu, but, please don't suicide bomb the Vatican. Your Italian Palestinian mother made you a nice spaghetti and meatball and hummus dinner

Last edited by JStone; 03-26-2012 at 11:51 AM.
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Old 03-26-2012, 11:52 AM
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Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post
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Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post

Abu, don't go suicide car bombing in your shiny, new Fiat allahu akbar.
Is it ok if I go gym/tanning/laundry before I go to mosque?
Yes, Abu, but, please don't suicide bomb the Vatican.
Oh I won't, but I still need some hummus for my linguini.
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Old 03-26-2012, 11:52 AM
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Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post
Quote: Originally Posted by High_Gravity View Post
Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post

Abu, don't go suicide car bombing in your shiny, new Fiat allahu akbar.
Is it ok if I go gym/tanning/laundry before I go to mosque?
Yes, Abu, but, please don't suicide bomb the Vatican. Your Italian Palestinian mother made you a nice spaghetti and meatball and hummus dinner
LMMFAO!
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Old 03-26-2012, 12:18 PM
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Quote: Originally Posted by High_Gravity View Post
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Is it ok if I go gym/tanning/laundry before I go to mosque?
Yes, Abu, but, please don't suicide bomb the Vatican. Your Italian Palestinian mother made you a nice spaghetti and meatball and hummus dinner
LMMFAO!
Abu, what do you call an Italian wearing a 3 foot hat? Pope.
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Old 03-26-2012, 12:19 PM
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Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post
Quote: Originally Posted by High_Gravity View Post
Quote: Originally Posted by JStone View Post

Yes, Abu, but, please don't suicide bomb the Vatican. Your Italian Palestinian mother made you a nice spaghetti and meatball and hummus dinner
LMMFAO!
Abu, what do you call an Italian wearing a 3 foot hat? Pope.
Is it possible to get a glass of wine with my samboosa?
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